The Celtic sculpture in actually Gallia and in Central Europe

The most ancient stone statue of the Latin period could be considered the soldier’s figure from Grezan (the museum in Nym) which S. Reynakh considers the Celtic-Greek work, carrying it to the 5th century. Armor with a belt and, the main thing, with the Celtic bracelet, according to him, are the first step leading to stone plasticity of Gallia and the Rhine region. It is difficult to date, however, it precisely. The oldest monuments of the Celtic plasticity could be looked for during the Hallstatt period; however mainly small plasticity of that time, rather art and craft works are known to us. As prove the made finds, the Celtic figurative plasticity of internal areas is poor, rare, in the majority is schematical, more or less columnar (similar to the stele) form, with decorative elements. It meets in France, in Rhine areas and in the Czech Republic. It is closely connected with cult and religious representations, and the Celtic inclination to an ornament which was so brightly shown especially in the small bronze industry found the reflection and in plasticity. Gallic sculptures only occasionally reach the large sizes. Some of them absolutely small and obviously were only symbols; often in them remnants of old times and even representation of totemistic character the Calcareous figurine of god with the image of a wild boar affect a breast and with the Celtic cervical hryvnia – torcs of Effinye in the basin of Marne has only 26 cm in height and on the equipment reminds wooden pastik. On the spirit it Celtic, and sometimes it is carried to more ancient period, actually it treats rather last La tene time when we find uncountable quantity of boar figures in all Celtic world; in the majority it is the small bronze figurines, perhaps symbolical appointment which are bright samples the standard of whom of production; they are executed also in a relief at sculptural works or minted on torevtichesky products. Only very much seldom such figurines happen the large sizes the Bronze pylon from Nevian-Syulli (Loire) is among such larger бронз (height of 68 cm); druids obviously hid it during the Roman occupation to the earth on the left coast of Loire against main the sanctuary which was on the opposite river bank at present Seong Benoit surrealism Luar (Floriakum, Fleri). The bronze figurine of god or hero from Bure (Seine and Oise) in the Parisian region sitting a figure with cervine legs (the cm is lower a mention of god Tsernunnos) has only 45 cm in height. The Celtic cervical hryvnia – торьвес and a blue-white insert from glass, typically Celtic, remained still in the left eye speaks about its origin; hands of a figure did not remain. The sculpture this bronze, hollow, is made of two parts, forward and back. Lantye and Gubert carry it to the second or last century B.C. It seems that this rather late work. A question of various wooden figures including figures of idols, is more difficult In their Latin time there was, apparently, much, only the insignificant remains of torsos remained. In Monbui (Loire) the wooden figurine which had 58 cm in height and the head another, 22 cm in height was found in a sacred well of the Gallic temple area. These are figurines of rough work still of times of a Romanization of Gallia which give us the chance to make though partly idea of these “simulacra” as they are called by Lukan. Several copies of the Celtic sculptures are revealed in rhine areas and in Wurtemberg. They besides mainly similar to the menhirs, pillared. Very ancient lines are carried by an obelisk from Pfaltsfeld in the Gunsryuksky region. From all four parties it is decorated with reliefs which still remind early style of the Celtic art; the head fish bubbles, and boldly executed S-shaped patterns crown either are connected with each other or make motive of lira. This pyramidal column from sandstone, 148 cm in height, perhaps, originally came to an end with the human head and can belong to the 4 or 3 century. Similar ancient lines are born also by the head fragment from Heidelberg made of sandstone, 36 cm in width which is obviously a part of a large object. It is necessary to carry to the Latin period also the stone figure from Goltsgerlingen to Wurtemberg which was earlier considered Slavic or medieval. Her head originally was two-faced – motive with which we already got acquainted in the south of France. At last, in this regard it is necessary to mention a tetrahedral column from sandstone (the remained height more than 120 cm) which was found in 1864 in the neighborhood of Valdenbukh between the cities of Tuebingen and Stuttgart; the top part it did not remain. The ornament in the form of curls and decoration of a belt is told about communication with the Latin environment though the general view is not too expressive. In this regard Nova Strashetsi (Czech Republic) as it is especially important find for acquaintance with the Celtic plasticity should not mention the hero’s head made of sandstone, found apparently in the sacred place in Mshetsky Zhekhrovitsakh in the neighborhood of. To the east from rhine areas it is still only find, but from plasticity known till this moment it is the most typical Celtic work which arose during the culmination period of the Celtic power in the Central Czech Republic, most likely in the 2nd century BC. And here it is possible to assume some southeast influences, however a general view, consecutive stylization of a flat human face, mouth, moustaches, eyes and hair – all this in general carries expressive Celtic lines; hair frame the head as a wreath of rather ornamental character, on a neck – typically Celtic torc. So far this head is a rare unique person without exact analogies in Gallia and serves as the clear proof that the Celtic sculpture took root and in Central Europe. It means that in the Czech lands there were same cult customs, as in Gallia and that they a crap underwent the southern influences less. The head was beaten off from some support or from the whole statue and comes from one of the centers of the Celtic power in the Czech Republic; and as such centers was in Central Europe much, and in some areas there are signs of obvious concentration of the Celtic burial grounds and settlements, it is possible to expect that new similar finds will be in the future made.

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