Superstitions and prejudices Highlanders Chechen tribe

Speaking of the mountaineers of religion, can not at the same time ignore its people’s prejudices and superstitions. The phenomena of the external world to make different people and different experiences. The uneducated man, the effects of these, in their diversity, complexity, inexplicably, finally, most of the causes and their origin – affect his feelings more and stronger than human development. The first gives them a wonderful value, the latter explains their research. What about the individual – it is quite applicable and to the whole nation. Hence – a greater or lesser extent of the superstitions of the people, and a more or less sharp shades in his legends and beliefs. Life is perfect Caucasian mountaineers never had much opportunity to develop: a constant battle with dikoyu by the nature surrounding it, and with the urgent, the harsh necessity, – always made his living in the real world and narrowed his fantasy world. His religious concept entirely designed to perform only the external forms of worship, and to Jihad krovomscheniyu – contributed to it even more. For all that, there is no denying mountaineers tendency of poetry and fairy tales – a consequence of their ardent imagination and thirst for the miraculous. But before that we will touch their stories, I will mention some of their superstitions and prejudices, more or menee prevailing in the mass of the people.

The belief in divination and fortunetellers – common to all the families of Chechen origin. We can say that it is common to all mountaineers and – moreover – to all people, though expressed in different forms.

In addition to a variety of methods of divination, using the mass of the people a certain degree of faith – by means of mirrors, stones, scarves, – relevant for large parts divination love and consumed mainly by women only, mountaineers local companies, there are three kinds of divination, have enjoyed great fame and faith in them namely divination bone sheep; Guessing on the Book Abdurzukka and Abdurahman, Sed-dzhayne, and, finally, a book of divination by Suleiman Suleiman Payhomar-dzhayne; This latest book is the same, our prophetic King Solomon.

First, rather than speak in detail about these three kinds of divination, of which the last two are common to all Muslims in a few words, I give below the divination of love.

Guessing mirror is used exclusively girls, with a view to guess her future husband. It is very simple. Take the mirror, which is put into the fire, and the roof hut, through the pipe, staring at him. Proglyadevshi, so two or three minutes, go to the roof, taken from each corner of the room, or in the direction of the four cardinal points, a bit of land, which is tied in a knot and put under the pillow at night. Some see the face of her future husband in the mirror; Those who do not see it there – put it under my pillow land collected by the above process is probably already seen it in a dream. Guessing this is the name of the Chechens kyuzge hazhar. Divination stones – fell Tasar – lies in the fact that the Soothsayer is usually an old woman takes nine small stones, and whispered to the two of them are lovers of names, suddenly throws all nine stones on the ground. By way of their fall, at the distance at which they are from one another will fall, and finally by the number of stones that will fall between the two stones lovers, witch makes it already the conclusion of the successful or dysfunctional compound them, about the time of this compound and the obstacles that may at the same time to meet.

Guessing by – handkerchief dustar dollars – is also produced by a witch. Usually it takes a large handkerchief, at one end of which is tied knot, and then from this node Soothsayer, vymerivaet elbow distance to the opposite corner. Remaining between these two points is a space base prediction, the more or less favorable to the one that wants to lift the veil of futurity. However, the divination of this kind is not only the divination only love, but is often used in cases when they want to find out the cause of illness, inexplicable for the relatives of the patient, or attribute it to the influence of the evil eye of a living person or a corpse. The results of the divination as much by chance as they can depend on the skill of the witch itself and agility of her hands.

These three methods of divination in a big hand between highlanders and women and girls are their exclusive property. But divination through dice sheep and books, which I have mentioned, much spread in the whole mass of the people; especially as the first kind of divination, the more the other two available. In previous years, during the war, our Chechnya, it was applied mainly to guessing the future of military enterprises, whether undertaken by the whole tribe, party or individuals – still. The smartest of naibs Shamil, not to mention the leaders of small naezdnichih gangs, going to any company brave, did not leave, without consulting first with hazherom, a prophet by the bone. In one of the communities that lie on the Sharo-Argun, he is still living in the famous mountain hazherov named Todd, whose advice and prophecy are not neglected and Shamil. I was assured many of the dear people of this society, the fate that befell Shamil on Gunib was it to predict Toda – and, say, Shamil was convinced of the truth of this prophecy, but the circumstances were such that to do otherwise, he could not, and the will, or nilly, I had to gain a foothold in Gunib. This same Toda predicted by the conviction of mountaineers, known in his time Naib Shamil, Nur-Ali, his death. When Nur-Ali, the manager of the Company and Chaberloy Chatou, went to the Little Chechnya to, increase its game Chechens oppose Russian, he deliberately drove into the village, where Todd lived, and the shoulder blade on the ram he predicted a quick death. “I see a horse and lead it to the ropes tied dead” body “- he said to him, and no longer wanted to say anything. Since through the week after Nur-Ali had died of cholera, the fact it has acquired the art of Todd countless fans, and once and for all cemented his fame as a soothsayer.

Guessing on sheep bones is in the name of Mountaineers phener and often phener-hazher. Anyone who wants to guess, must have their own sheep, that is, from his flock..; bought also relies fit for this process in such a case only if he remained with his new owner a year’s time, or whether the latter gave him three times salt. Sheep must be a year old; Wool may be arbitrary, although some prefer to soothsayers and sheep completely white. Hazher cuts sheep, cook and then, one of the blades of the front legs of the animal, predicts the future. The basis for the prediction is it dark and light spots are visible on the bone and if through it to see the light, just like the bloody spots and patterns of veins are often visible on the blade. Blood stains – a bad omen, and in the old days is not just any plan, boldly conceived by Mountain riders remained without performing due to the opening hazherom prophetic signs.

Guessing on Sedien-dzhayne is simple mathematical calculations. This book enjoys great prestige among the mountaineers; she believes even the mullahs who have a reputation for the people of scholars and sane. I was able to see a copy of it, even though the book is more or less rare – perhaps because anyone who has it, hiding it. I will try to give an idea of ​​the method of divination by it.

Sedien-dzhayne translated means star book (Cedi, Chechen – star). Muslims take twelve celestial constellations, according to the number of their major prophets or saints. Each of these latter was born under the well-known constellation, but because the whole book Sedien dzhayne-divided into twelve sections, each of which corresponds to the known constellation and the prophet, who was born under it. On the first page of the book presents Arabic alphabet, with corresponding to each letter of the known numbers: Elip – one bi – two, five – four, si – eight, Jim – Thuja, hee – eight, Chi – oh, gave – four dzal – four , RI – eight ji – seven sen – on Shen – oh, sat -.. six, etc. reptile or reptile, first of all say your name and the name of his mother. Both are parsed by letter, and the value corresponding to each of them, are added; Then from the amount obtained by adding the values ​​expressed Gad and his mother’s name letters, leans on twelve units as long as there will be less than the number of the twelve. According to the value of the remaining number of department sought one of the constellations of the same number, in which lies the oracle for men and women separately. It begins, usually, describing appearance, “his handsome face, tall, slender figure,” shining eyes “- then follows a description of his life that now and then the futurity. This book is made up of only twenty to thirty pages octavo, as the reader sees himself very innocent and not intricate; Yet believe in it to the extent that Sedien-dzhayne, along with two other books – Dururul-Akbar and Syurul-Afa, also owned as it seems, to the number of astrological Arabic books – in the old days more than once served to scientists Chechnya and Dagestan fanatics capable of directing the will of the people on the path that led to the achievement of their personal goals. Two recent books, in their full extent, we do not have the Chechens; some only Mullahs there extracts from them, very brief, but it nevertheless predicted crop failures bread, disease, war, earthquakes and so on. Complete the book Dururul-Akbar and Syurul-Afa exist, according to the people, only in Turkey, and its enormous value can be accessed by only one sultan but the richest people of the Empire.

Compilers Sedien-dzhayne were, as I have already said, the Arabs and Abdurrahman Abdurzukk, especially the latter. The appearance of it belongs to the era of Muhammad, and just then nascent Islamism. Highlanders, about Sedien-dzhayne, tell the following legend:

Abdurzukk, who wrote the book with the help of Jean, eavesdrop on all the information it reported, angels, met once on the bridge of the prophet. The latter, wishing to test the extent of his knowledge of secret things, asked him whether there is on the ground or the sky Payhomar-Mohammed, and if – there is, where he is at this moment? Abdurzukk, after consulting with his book, which has always been with him, he replied that Payhomar Mohammad indeed exist and that it is the greatest prophet of the present and future times. “But surprisingly, he added, my book I pointed out that he is not at the present moment or in heaven or on earth. Therefore, I believe that Payhomar-Mohammed, if not me, then perhaps – you, as the two of us but now we stand on this bridge and not in or on the earth or in heaven. ” Make a few more questions Abdurzukku and seeing that Sedien-dzhayne opens him such secrets, which can not know death, considering them to the same vain, stolen from the Almighty cunning and guile jinn – Mohammed that hour is taken from Abdurzukka book and threw it into the river. Book immediately sank to the bottom, but not at her sheets, spaced at a wind fall Abdurzukk had yet to seize and hide at home. Prophecies in them is supplemented by Abdurrahman – but without the help of the jinn – and made this book, Sedien-dzhayne. This somehow explains the fact, adds Mountain mullahs that this book, in spite of all predictions of its immutability, sometimes it is not clear to see clearly the future. As a result of all previous Sedien-dzhayne Muslims consider the book the Prohibition, atheistic, and comes across very rarely. Mulla, firmly believing in it, however, can not be solved before the people had to guess at it, and the one who has it, keeps it secret. Oh I will not say method of divination based on the book Payhomar-Suleiman, as both same book and the method of divination by it are identical to those of King Solomon’s books, which are common and we in the lowest class of the people, and the method of divination is the same. To complete the analysis of superstitions and prejudices mountaineers left for me to say more about their belief in the evil eye, enchantment, bewitching and damage the grass. Opinion of the evil eye between them in exactly the same course as ours. Counteracting the evil eye is the usual means of amulets, which are sewn in prayer or saying from the Koran. Such charms mountaineers hang on the neck are often expensive or their favorite horses, to turn so bad influence on them or envious eyes. Belief in the possibility of charmed rifles plot of bullets, more or less dominant among our linear Cossacks between highlanders spread very little. Their self-esteem and courage to rise against the idea that the fate of battle can not depend on the fate or personal fearlessness, but on the will of like it man. As to the belief in the possibility of damage, it is accepted by a whole mass of the people. There are various types of damage. “Wicked woman, such as her famous knotted grass and spoke of her, throwing into the fire of the house, the man she wants to spoil. The result is usually a disease. Healing damaged can be made only with the help of the witch who ruined it.

Another kind of corruption in which highlanders sincerely believe and which is very afraid of is that a malicious person, during the wedding and at the moment when the mullah makes the bridegroom known issues – every answer of his tying knots on a thread, in advance for that purpose prepared. While these sites are not decoupled – full possession of his wife for the groom becomes impossible, in spite of any medications. Therefore, due to the deep belief in the possibility and reality of this kind of magic, with the groom’s demand, in addition to the mullahs and the two witnesses in the room generally do not allow anyone or pre strictly examine whether those in outsiders disappeared. In most cases the same part, for total security, a mullah, as I have already said, the groom makes his ceremonial matters not in the house, but in the yard, trying to witnesses, except no other responses did not hear him. Besides damage by tying knots, the groom can spoil in another way, more easy: it is necessary, at each of its response, the mullah, to take out a few of the sheath the blade of his dagger, and once again put it, or remove the cartridge belts and put their Circassian. Such action, repeated three times, equivalent to tying knots and produces exactly the same results.

The local mining companies are also rampant belief in damage by poison. Often, no matter what belief and evidence, makes it big quarrel and disagreement. Highlanders say that is a kind of grass, dzhalienga-Lettow Buts (grass, forcing bark), known to some persons, who, if you give it to drink or eat, produces damage, which is manifested painful seizures, convulsions and cry like a dog barking. A similar superstition prevails in our common people and probably many cases to see or hear, so called in some parts of Russia, hysterical. These painful attacks, indeed, here and there among women in some societies developed a more or less strong, although, of course, the source of their origin – are not a poison. It is remarkable that the disease is almost exclusively dominated by the mountains, while in Chechnya, the plane is almost unknown, or at least found very rarely. From this, in Chechnya and famous palhakken-lamroyn-dzuderish – Mountain witch. I have repeatedly sent to the medical research of the disease and in most cases it turned out that it was a nerve disease, or else – a sham, caused, of course, most warehouse of family life of the local mountaineers. Between men the disease is unknown. I promised quite a substantial monetary reward to those who give me “dzhalienga Lettow-buts” but all my attempts in this regard were still unsuccessful, because, of course, is quite understandable. However, it must be said, that the harmful effect of this herb is attributed to the mountaineers as much as its toxic properties and spells to use at its gathering, as well as to the method and the time at which she was going. It is going as it follows:

“Evil Woman”, or man, at night, generally at the full moon, – though, indeed, it is not a necessary condition – out of the house, trying with no one to meet on the way, and sent in advance already spy out a place on the hill, where it is growing dzhalienga Lettow-Butz. There’s a witch disclaims all dress, and completely naked, goes backwards, looking for the grass and trying to tear her feet between the legs. During this process, the Witch thought and speech renounces faith and from God. “I do not recognize God; I did not create it: I am equal to it and also being able to like him.

Compilation of Information about the Caucasian Highlanders ISSUE 1

Tbilisi 1868

Ethnographic essays

Argun District.

Article AP Ippolitova.

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