In this paper, we consider only race Caucasian and native or alien, but existed before the movement Russian to race in the south, which appeared among the races in the XI-XII centuries, gradually took bolshuyuchast areas of the North Caucasus, the former occupied races Cymru and the Aral-Altai. In the Transcaucasian region, in its main features, races, distribution remains unchanged since ancient times.
The magnitude of the cranial index is now living in the tribes of the Caucasus are distributed as follows:
|Transc. Sunni Tatars||82,6|
|Armenians of Akhaltsikh||85,8|
|Armenians of Tiflis||86,3|
|The Armenians of Van||86,6|
|Kumyks by rev. Dr. Svidersky||87,0|
|Cuban Jews County||87,3|
Dolichocephals occupy the southeastern part of the Caucasus (the Persians, Kurds, Tatars) and the western part of the Caucasus mountain range (Shapsugs, Bzhedukhs) and brachycephalic – the middle of the South Caucasus (Georgians, Armenians, Jews) and the eastern part of the Caucasus mountain range (tsez people, kyurins and other Lezgins) .
The distribution of the Caucasian tribes on growth.
Most tall dolichocephalic – Persians, aderbeydzhantsy and Western mountaineers, as well as occupying the middle parts of the Caucasus mountain range mezatsefaly Ossetians, Kabardians, Chechens and extreme eastern brachycephalic mountaineers, Lezgins. The most undersized – Georgians, Armenians, Jews, live in the valleys and highlands of the Caucasus and belong to the brachycephalic and ultra-brachycephalic.
|Average height, mm.|
|Shapsugs and Abadzekhs||1704|
|Aderbeydzhan Tatars Shiites||1691|
|Ossetians (on Gilchenko)||1695|
|Ossetians Gori district||1670|
|Imeretia Racha district||1661|
|Georgians Signakh County||1652|
|Armenians of Tbilisi||1652|
|The Jews of Dagestan||1644|
|Georgians of Tiflis County||1640|
|Armenians of Akhalkalaki district||1630|
|The Armenians of Van||1623|
|Nakhichevan Armenians County||1620|
|Cuban Jews County||1618|
|Greeks Sukhumi district||1610|
Distribution of Caucasians in color of the iris.
|In 100 observations iris:|
|Armenians of Tiflis||80||20||8|
|Ossetians (on Gilchenko)||65||35||35|
Brunette and giperbryunety, intensive Carey iris, more than 71%, almost live in the Caucasus, mainly in the south-east and its southern half (the Persians, Tatars, Kurds, Armenians, Aissors); the inhabitants of the Caucasus mountain range and its northern and western slopes, with the exception of the Avars, Kumyk, Nogays and Kabardians have iris and a third to half of the average and amelanotic
Combining all of the above, the Caucasus Isthmus investigated four major races – two European and two Asian.
I. First Caucasian, of European origin, race occupies all the middle and western part of the Caucasus mountain range and the western slopes of the Black Sea. In a more typical of its representatives (Bzhedukhs, natukhai, Shapsugs), for growth of 1.70 m and a cranial index – 78-79, it is almost the North European race Deniker, race Cymru and Homo Europeus. More than half of them dolichocephalic.According to the measurements of Professor A.A. Tikhomirov in modern, but now almost disappeared, natukhays dolichocephals to 85%.
Regarding eye color is not accurate digital information, but it is noteworthy observation is quite respectable scientist Baron Haxthausen that natukhai and other Western mountaineers blue eyes more than brown. According to our observations in Bzhedukhs completely pigmented eyes less than 50%, and 25% did amelanotic. Taking into consideration other signs -. A thick beard, a narrow oval face, etc., must recognize that despite frequent cross-breeding with the brown-eyed broad-headed types, this race has retained all the main features of its prototype race or North European races Cymru. Nearby with Western mountaineers mezotsefaly – Circassians, Circassians as well as living south dzhegety, Samurzakanians, Mingrelians, Imeretia and subrahitsefaly Chechens and especially Ossetians, judging by the significant percentage of between amelanotic eyes and relatively narrow head, also descended from cross-breeding the North European Kimry Celtic and Slavic races with the Caucasian and Central Asian brachycephalic.
II. Second Caucasian corresponding Deniker sixth race, occupies the eastern half of the main Caucasus ridge and consists mainly of different names Lezgins. According giperbrahitsefalicheskomu – 86 or more – cranial index, the growth of 1,68-1,70, and both opredelnie Deniker, pigmentation and related it to the category Brunette, Dagestan this race almost completely corresponds to the Adriatic race. Judging by the large number among some Dagestani tribes amelanotic eyes, and especially taking into consideration a considerable number of medium-sized eyes, amounting, by definition, the Erkerta, up 32% from the Dargin and tsez people, 37% have Kyurins and even up to 42% on everything from Tabasarans number inspected, Lezgin tribes can not, however, read a real macho.
III. The third race of Caucasian origin a purely Asian, dolichocephalic a cranial index of 77-78, an average growth of about 1.70 m and color giperbryunetov eyes, t. E., More than 90% of pigmented eyes.This very clean race belong to Persians, Aderbeydzhan Tatars, Kurds and Tats.
IV. Fourth Caucasian race, and brahi- giperbrachycephalic, characterized by the 85-87, shorter than the average 1,62-1,64 m and iris brunettes with brown eyes 71-87%. This race includes Jews, Armenians, Laz, a part of Georgians and Greeks. This race is the basis of Semitic.
Of the secondary races are more important brachycephalic with a cranial index of 84-87, the growth – 1.60-1.70 m with pigmented, at 80-85%, the iris. This race belongs – Kumyks, part of the Avars, Mountain Tatars Kabardians and logged into the Transcaucasian Sunni, mixed with Georgians and other tribes, the Turks. This race is part of the great Ural-Altaic race.
The second race of the Chaldean with minor giperbrachycephalic, 87.5, cranial index, rising 1.66 m and a district committee of 90% pigmented, the Caucasus has not many pure representatives – Assyrians. This race has many common features, especially the structure of the nose and eyes with Semitic race, and which is connected to some anthropologists, but apart from the higher growth and higher brachycephalic, an important feature of this race – plentiful body pilose. The representatives of this race are largely became part of the Semitic races – Armenians, Jews, Georgians.
About the time of the spread of the Caucasus Isthmus dolichocephalic and brachycephalic can only make some assumptions.
Until recently it was regarded as not subject to doubt that the ancient culture has penetrated into Europe from Asia, and from there came the Aryans brought to Europe already domesticated animals brought guns Stone and Bronze Ages. Based mainly on the identity of the roots of European languages with Sanskrit, the researchers sought out the ancestors of Europeans, on the barren highlands of the Pamirs, in the deserts of Inner Asia, among the different tribes of Hindustan. The road, on the assumption of many Aryans moved from Asia to Europe, went through the Caucasus.
Currently, this opinion was shaken. Lombard argues that in Southern Europe and the Caucasus after the quaternary era dominated is Mediterranean race that blondes in Asia was not, and the first country they once possessed a high culture, Scandinavia. Max Muller does not see any traces of the Aryans on the intended route them from Asia to Europe. Foam on the basis of anthropological, topographic and other considerations came to the conclusion that the homeland of the Aryans – Scandinavia. R. Reinach in his printed at the end of 1893 work Le mirage oriental, without specifying the place of the first homeland of the Aryans, and assuming that it could be in the South of Russia, Germany, or on the lower Danube, said that in any case at the present time no one, not having preconceived ideas, will not search for it in Asia. We can not dwell here on the linguistic evidence, the culture of self-reliance, for example, the Scandinavian sagas, and so on., But its independence from Asian proved directly and anthropology.So, undoubtedly proved that the European animals – a horse, a bull (from Bos primigenius) – pig, goat existed in Europe and paleologicheskuyu era and here have been domesticated; that pet Asia, camel, not in Europe, and that the tools of the Stone and Bronze Age Europe have their own character. Noting the striking similarities of the Bronze Age objects Assyria, Babylon and Egypt, Reinach categorically states that any excavation of archaeological and anthropological purposes or in caves, dolmens and lake homes in Europe, not only characteristic of the Assyrian and Phoenician amulets, but none whatever In any case the subject certainly of oriental origin has not yet been found.
The boundary of European and Asian culture since the Stone Age was the Caucasian ridge. The plains and steppes are not favorable for the development and consolidation of a culture. Every walk is difficult deposition, crystallization. If steppe culture originated, it depended on accidental causes and this culture was not strong. Subsequent movement and fermentation did not give her a chance to get stronger, to settle. Only where the movement is delayed and the young culture is the ability to protect, it can evolve and improve. Such protection for wandering the plains of Europe and Asia tribes became the Caucasus Mountains.
Caucasian Ridge, a huge wall which separates Europe from Asia in ancient times was almost insurmountable obstacle for the transition from one part of the world to another. On the tops of his deity were terrible, unfavorably gazing at daring, dared to go beyond their tenure. For residents of the southern Caucasus was as if the world beyond. To rock Elbrus Zeus Prometheus was chained on the tops and gorges lived Amiran and other terrifying deities. Transitions through the ridge, even passing it lightly, so dangerous, that are currently on the passes mysterious and scary spirits to protect them, the natives sacrifice.
Driven by the enemy, as well as famine, epidemic diseases, changes in the physical structure of the area and, finally, as a result of natural reproduction, the different groups of people from the south and the north, even in the earliest era of human existence, came finally to the Caucasus Mountains. Then there was nowhere to go. Since these crowds followed the other, the weaker gradually deeper into the mountain, until finally he found a safe refuge for themselves. Shutting in the gorges, in the words of Baron Uslar, remnants of peoples against foreign enemies were safe and could finally take up a device of its own permanent home. If further movements of people in the fortified and protected, in addition to the nature and brave inhabitants of mountains, could fall already only a few wisps of these popular movements that are either formed their own little lake, or the melted among took shape tribes, leaving only the more or less anthropological between them and linguistic footprint.
There is no reason to believe. What got in the Caucasus Mountains in prehistoric times the tribes were out izgonyaemy subsequent invasions. A Caucasian Ridge never been able to move large armies with the necessary with pack animals, inventory provisions and forage. Even less likely, to the ridge crossing the whole people with families, property and cattle. All such invasion broke at the foot of the ridge. Do not leave without a greater or lesser impact on the type of the indigenous population, small falls into the mountain group approach to the ridge of the peoples could not destroy it, and anthropological facts fully confirm the views of the best researchers Highlanders L’Huillier and Baron Uslar that the main mountain tribes lived on the ground they occupy For several thousand years. L’Huillier says actually on western tribes of Adygea that if they are not primitive, the oldest.
What anthropological type of the Caucasus peoples inhabited in the Stone and Bronze Age, is not known exactly. Skulls Stone Age Cro-Magnon and the other did not find here, or they can not be measured; the skull of the Bronze Age on the localities are considerable variations. According to the measurements AA Ivanovo, middle cranial figures skulls from burial grounds of the Bronze Age some areas of the North Caucasus following:
|3||Zadalisk number 4||74,0|
|4||Zadalisk number 3||80,5|
Single copies of the performance were between 66 and 88. According to my measurements the two skulls, extracted AV Komarov in Dagestan, the Caucasus stored in the museum, the cranial index of smaller 78.8, 81.2 more. Indicator of the skull Kyurinskogo County Museum of Caucasian Medical Association, 84. dolichocephalic and subdolichocephalic type was 50.6% of 67 investigated AA Ivanovski skulls of the North Caucasus. In Dagestan, and areas close to the Caspian Sea, apparently, prevailed brachycephalic. Despite the failure of the collected to date anthropological material, however, we have reason to say that in the Bronze period, tribes living in central and western Caucasus dominated dolichocephalic type, and between tribes Caspian, where the degree of culture of the Bronze Age, according to the available data was much lower – brachycephalic.
Thus, the basic character types – dolichocephalic on the west, and brachycephalic in the eastern half of the North Caucasus, noticeable since the Bronze Age. In addition to the above features, the northern origin of the main north-Caucasian groups indicate the way the prevailing they facial pilosity, broad, thick beard, which is not the Iranians and Mongols. One of the most important evidence that early, laid the foundation of a lasting move in the foothills of the North Caucasus, the tribes have come from western and northern Europe, is the existence in the western Caucasus dolmens, almost identical to the dolmens of the Baltic countries.
Being exposed to the influence of their neighbors to the north, and from prehistoric times mingling with the tribes of Russian, Caucasian mountaineers relatively little exposed to invasions from Asia.
Neither Cyrus nor Darius Hystaspes, no other formidable conquerors of Asia, as well as next-door neighbors mountaineers, Georgians and Armenians, even in periods of the highest of his power, not conquered mountaineers. They, like the Greeks, were there as traders preachers of religion, missionaries, sometimes allies, but more often in the form of slaves and captives. If anthropological traces of cross-breeding with the Iranians and the mountaineers of different types Semites and preserved, especially between neighboring tribes to the south, both Ossetians and tsez people, then this confusion took place mainly from the disposal of the prisoners, mostly women.
It is quite a different character types dominated south of the Caucasus, in Asia.
In the quaternary era in Asia generally dominated dolichocephalic type of population. Based on current anthropological material Kollman determines in Asia in this era dolichocephals 65% and 57% in Europe. Lombard, without any solid reason, said that since Iran in the west there lived a race is Mediterranean (Mediterrain, Melonochroid), then spread, with polished stone civilization, all the shores of the Mediterranean.
During the Bronze Age in Western Asia lived several groups of various types. Uslar main race of conquerors, city builders, inventors bronze honors Cushites. Bertin on the excavations of Babylon and Nineveh, among the skulls of long-headed, straight-curved noses and foreheads, belonging to dominate tribe found brachycephalic skull, with low foreheads and fleeing chin. In the Caucasus, there are areas where people of the same type dolichocephalic lived, for example, in Samtavro near Mtskheta, where deeper belonging to Bronze Age burial sites, the majority of skulls with the index of 70-72 and even 69.
In recent years, many anthropologists concluded that the most determined, nor the original peoples did not come from the now occupied their country, and are the products of this particular area. The famous geographer Karl Ritter also represents the continents, as it were by individuals and their peoples products bound at under the influence of the nature of the country to do just as they did. It is shared by us and the position has scientific basis. If the nature and climatic zones are directly dependent on the soil, flora and fauna, some of this dependence can not get rid of people. Based on this theory, the main distinctive types available in Asia, have been formed and the same here.
They did not come either from the west or from the east, and from the time of the appearance of man has been approximately the same areas where they live and in the moment. From time to time we separated from them and went to other countries sometimes very large mass of the population, but are usually separated out and disappeared among them unusual living conditions, and their staff were at the same place. Europe falls into Mongolian, and even the Ural-Altaic tribes almost completely drowned in it. Not only negros, but the Malays or Indians have not spread to the north of 45-50 °.
If you select, departed from its original group Fatherland and found favorable conditions for himself, in the end, to a large extent lost its original properties and only the most persistent bone skeleton and eye color, as in the Caucasian mountaineers, discover the relationship of these groups with their original remote ancestors.
The dominant race in ancient times, almost everywhere were dolichocephalic. According Lapouge, dolichocephalic different enterprise, initiative, ingenuity, adventurism. The movement of humanity to progress by dolichocephalic Lapouge up headquarters and army officers, and brachycephalic ordinary, passive mass, running along the said road dolichocephals.
Reign in Assyria and Persia dolichocephalic race – the ancestors of the Iranians and the Kurds. The importance of Persian culture in western Asia and the Caucasus is known. They have for many centuries, both physically and morally enslaved edge. Paralizuemaya ignorance and lawlessness in Iran, enterprise Persians brilliantly manifested and now, for example, in Bombay, where by the way all the best charitable institutions created and maintained by the Persians, but also here in Baku and Tiflis, where the Persians, not having almost no education successfully compete with the more cultured people.
Kurds, despite their current Wild, also experienced more than one culture. Driven by circumstances on the marginal mountains, broken into many, almost identical to each other unrelated companies, being in profound ignorance, often starving, the Kurds in the absence of other opportunities to show their intrinsic organization of initiative and enterprise, exhibit their predation. When a strong power, as in the days of the Assyrian power and the famous Babylon, united them, the Kurds formed a powerful and, judging by the left since irrigation and other facilities, cultural state.
Thus, from the most remote times the prevailing and dominant race in Asia Minor and neighboring countries was dolihotsefalicheskaya. With the same remote, prehistoric epochs existed in Asia Minor, mainly in the valleys of the rivers, and enslaved dolichocephalic, brachycephalic race.
The original homeland in Asia Minor brachycephalic, are mostly farmers, were to be the plains and plateaus. The place of the formation of this kind are interesting if not entirely historical, based on the very popular legends, information. After the Flood, which killed all known maloaziytsam population Noah’s ark stopped on Mount Ararat, which is on the researches of Baron Uslar inhabitants of the plateau is not called the current Ararat and Mount Lubari near Lake Van. Noah and his family of course, first settled there, where to stay and the ark, but when offspring multiplied, one part of it took Chaldeans country, and then Terah, Abraham’s father moved to the land of Canaan, the other part, or left in place, or sold to the north , east and west. Directly from Noah trace their origins not only Jews, but also Armenians and Georgians. The founder of the Armenians, Hayk, and the founder of Georgian Kartlosi deemed grandchildren Noah.
Also part of the Jews who went south and mixed with dolichocephalic Arab and other tribes, the other descendants of Noah – the Caucasian Jews, Armenians, Georgians, as well as and the adjacent group of Chaldeans belong to a pronounced brachycephalic group. In the middle cranial index of 86-87 Jews, Armenians 85,7-86,3 Georgians 85-85,5, Chaldeans to 87, they do not have anything to do with dolichocephalic Kurds and Persians. Similarly, the average increase in their – Jews 1620, the Armenians in 1630, Georgians 1640 dolichocephals significantly lower growth.
Under favorable circumstances, people multiply rapidly. By doubling the population in only 50 years, from one human couple in 1000 will happen 2,097,000, and in 1200 years to 35 million people. Believing the Bible from BC before the Flood 3246 years, to the time of Babylon 1700 years, during the 1500 years the population with such reproduction would reach two thousand-odd million. Allowing for the possibility, after the unknown, can be suitably Devkalionovu flood, geological upheaval, destruction of vast areas of the population, the origin of the Jews, Armenians and Georgians from one brachycephalic kind of does not contain anything unscientific. When descended from the same root brachycephalic multiply, they gradually began to replace his former masters dolichocephals. Under the influence of new religions, Having closed in the name of higher ideas and predvodimye by strong people brachycephalics formed compact groups among each other did not have a strong bond, mostly individualists, fire fans and the forces of nature, dolichocephals. Lacking initiative and enterprise brachycephalics held the position of reticence, perseverance, hard work.
The further fate of brachycephalic depended on collisions with other, unknown stories, the people, the climate and so on. History indicates that a change in the conditions often change habits, customs, language. Renan shows that the Jews in the land of the Chaldeans worshiped idols and spoke the Aramaic language, and only when they came to Canaan began to speak in Hebrew. According to his own, in 5-6 centuries BC the Jews again changed their language. Currently, the Caucasus Jews native language is Georgian, the farsky. Similarly, subject to greater changes and the Georgian and Armenian languages. Jews dispersed to all other peoples and firmly united after the exodus from Egypt, when Renan, the Jewish God became not the god of all the people and God, loving the Jews alone, and hate all the others. Georgians and Armenians were subjected to the influence of the indigenous tribes of the Caucasus, and, subject to the peculiar nature of language and these unknown tribes, also variously changed. Anyway, this sharply outlines brachycephalic group undoubtedly emerged in Asia Minor, and only touching and mingling with diverse as stints in Asia, European styles, and natives of the Caucasus mountain and Inner Asia, has suffered many changes.
Countless combinations and cross-breeding dolichocephalic and brachycephalic types, which started already with the remotest epochs of the Stone period, naturally had to make changes in the type of offspring of mixed types. These changes are however in the Caucasus less sharply than in other areas, and the main dolichocephalic Iranian and Semitic-Chaldean brachycephalic types preserved in a fairly pure form. Between Iranians more than 70% with parent figures 70-77; 32 measured Shantrom Tats none was no index above 82, and between us and studied Erkertom Tabasarans, Avars, kazikumukov, Armenian, Dagestan Mountain Jews, there was no dolichocephal. The main change in the types with a Bronze Age – a strong reduction of extreme dolihotsefalizm. Dolichocephalic skulls with cranial indices 67-70, belonging, probably, the most predatory types, already not at all modern humans. Otherwise, even in eye color, especially large changes occurred. Effect of cross-breeding with the Europeans is more noticeable only in the folk who lived closer to the shores of the Black Sea – Mingrelians, Imeretia, Svante, as well as some tribes of the Kurds.
Due to the lack of sufficient research to determine the dark matter of the origin of human races and tribes, data, anthropologists, ethnographers and linguists make it diverse, often contradictory and based on random discoveries, assumptions. Kollman and then Deniker attempt to have a more solid foothold classify the race only on the basis of the least volatile, anatomical features. Guided by three long established Deniker, signs, and without going into the particulars, and especially the theory of linguists and anthropologists, we come to the conclusion that the ancient tribes of the Northern Caucasus origin and comply with the European races Cymru and the Adriatic. And the nations that live south of the ridge, Asian origin and form two main groups rather typical – Iranian and Semitic.
RACE CAUCASUS TIFLIS
Printing Sharadze M. & Co. 1900 I. I. Pantyukhov