Creation of the first colony in Australia — New South Wales
Ideologists of colonialism usually seek to prove that colonization of overseas territories was objectively necessary owing to an overpopulation of the European states. However history of the British colonization of Australia disproves this statement. Only in eighteen years after visit of east coast of Australia by J. Cook the English government remembered “rights” for this continent and started its colonization.
But also in the eighties 18th century to Australia not residents of the English cities, but inhabitants of the English prisons began to move. Development of capitalism in England was followed by a terrible impoverishment of a people at large. Since the end of the 15th century in agriculture of England fast development of sheep breeding was observed. Large landowners in more and more wide scales turned the land grounds into pastures. Moreover, they occupied communal lands and drove peasants from their plots. At the same time not only certain country houses, but also the whole villages communicated.
Peasants, having lost the earth, not having an opportunity to find work, joined huge army of the tramps wandering over the country without means of support. Those from them who managed to find work on manufactories or large-scale farms got to conditions of ruthless operation. The working day in the centralized manufactory proceeded 14-16 hours and more. An arbitrariness of the owner was unlimited. The salary was not enough even for bread therefore the beggary was widely adopted. On manufactories child labor was applied. “Unfortunate children at the age of six or seven years had to work twelve hours a day, six days a week in terrible noise of weaving mills or underground in dark as night coal mines” [143, page 6]. “Hungry women even “sold” the children on mines and factories because they not were to find in forces to themselves work. Thousands and thousands of jobless, homeless people faced a dilemma: “to steal or die”” [132, page 6]. Rise in crime was result of social disasters. “Gangs of robbers directed horror at the cities. A ruling caste, fearing uncontrollable crowds of men and women, fell upon them by all force of barbarous criminal laws” [132, page 6].
The English criminal laws of that time differed in extraordinary cruelty. The death penalty was provided for 150 types of crimes — from murder before theft from a handkerchief pocket. It was allowed to hang up the children who reached seven-year age [132, page 6].
To unload prisons, the authorities sent convicts to North America. Planters willingly paid delivery of gratuitous labor: from 10 to 25 f. the Art. for the person, depending on his qualification [132, page 5]. During the period between 1717 and 1776 about 30 thousand prisoners and 10 thousand from Ireland were sent from England and Scotland in the American colonies [95, t. 1, page 61].
When the American colonies achieved independence, the British government tried to send prisoners to the possession in the Western Africa. Consequences were catastrophic. The pernicious climate resulted in enormous mortality among exiled. In 1775-1776 to the Western Africa 746 prisoners were sent. From them 334 persons died, 271 persons died in attempt to flight, about the others the Ministry of Internal Affairs of data had no [79, page 29]. The English government had to refuse use of the West African colonies as places of the reference.
There passed many years before came to send to the government of England thought put in Australia. The botanist J. Banks, the participant of expedition of J. Cook, in 1779 acted before, the special committee of the House of Commons created for studying of a question of creation of transatlantic settlements for the concluded British prisons.
As legal record testifies, “Joseph Banks when he was asked in what remote place of the globe it is possible to create a colony for convicts from where escape would be complicated and where the fertile soil would give them the chance to exist after the first year during which the homeland will give them small help … informed committee that, IN his opinion, the most suitable place is Botany Bay in New South Wales … swimming to which from England takes about seven months and where the probability of opposition from natives is very small. Banks visited this gulf at the end of April — the beginning of May, 1770 when weather was soft and moderate, as in Toulouse, in the south of France. The area of fertile soils in comparison with fruitless spaces is small, but is quite sufficient to support the big population. There are no pets, and during the ten-day stay Banks did not see any wild animals, except a kangaroo … He did not doubt that the sheep and a bull if to bring them there, will get accustomed and will give posterity. The grass high and juicy, is some edible plants, one of which reminds wild spinach. The area is well supplied with water, it is a lot of wood which will be enough for building of any number of buildings.
When J. Banks was asked whether the homeland will receive some benefit from the colony created to Botany Bay, he answered: “If civil management is created, population of a colony will inevitably increase, and it will give the chance to import there many European goods; also there is no doubt that such country as New Holland which by the sizes exceeds Europe will give in exchange a lot of necessary” [113, page 16-17].
- Banks was supported by J. Matra who also took part in Cook’s expedition. His family battled against the American colonists on the party of the English troops. J. Matra suggested to provide to the colonists of the former British possession in America who remained faithful to Great Britain, the land plots in the territory of New South Wales. “I want to submit the proposal which will help to compensate loss of our American colonies over time on the decision of our government — J. Matra in December, 1784 wrote the lord to Sydney holding a post of the Minister of Internal Affairs. — The captain Cook the first landed and investigated east part of that beautiful country (New South Wales — K. M.) from 38 ° to 10 ° southern latitude about which it gave the most favorable account. Few black inhabitants who are at the lowest step of social development inhabit this territory and lead animal existence … The climate and soils are so good that all types of products, both European, and Indian will allow to make. At good management it will allow to make in 20-30 years revolution in all system of the European trade and will provide to England monopoly for its considerable part” [113, page 14-15].
Matyora emphasized that in a new colony it is possible to grow up flax, pointed out high qualities of the pine growing on Norfolk Island. These arguments were very powerful because flax and the wood at that time were of the same great importance as steel and oil today.
For preservation of the ascendent position in the world England had to have the most powerful fleet, and the wood and flax were the most important components of shipbuilding of that time. England annually bought in Russia flax for the sum about 500 thousand f. St. Having lost the American possession, England lost the most important supplier of the wood.
Matyora paid attention and to important military value of future colony. “In case of war with Holland or Spain we will be able to cause very big troubles to these states from our new settlement” — he wrote. For implementation of the plan of J. Matr asked the admiralty to allocate a frigate.
However the first lord of the admiralty Hau did not share J. Matra’s enthusiasm. In the letter to Sydney he wrote the lord: “I believe that if it is recognized desirable to increase number of our settlements according to the plan, offered by mister Matra, there will be a need to use vessels of other design. Frigates are unsuitable for performance of such service”. Further lord Hau pointed to the great difficulties connected with the organization of a colony at so far distance from England: “Navigation duration such is that it is hardly possible to hope for obtaining any benefits in trade or war which are meant by mister Matra” [113, page 15].
However Matra was not discouraged by a position of the first lord of the admiralty. At the beginning of 1785 he asked the admiral J. Young to support his project that the last willingly made. In the letter to the government Young emphasized that creation of a colony in New South Wales would allow to expand trade with Japan and China, and also would have important military value. Young, as well as Matra, considered it expedient to send to a colony of prisoners from the English prisons as its remoteness practically excluded a possibility of escape. Intervention of the admiral Young accelerated the solution of a question of creation of a colony in New South Wales. It is necessary to tell that the American colonists who kept loyalty of England received the land plots in Canada by then.
On August 18, 1786 the British government prepared the plan of creation of a colony in New South Wales. The lord Sydney addressed the Minister of Finance with the letter in which he specified that the British prisons are strongly crowded and that it creates threat to society that attempts to find the suitable area for the organization of the settlement in Africa were not crowned with success. Therefore, the lord wrote Sydney, it is necessary to allocate funds for sending 750 put in Botany Bay “with such quantity of the food, necessary objects of use and agricultural tools which can be necessary for them after arrival” [113, page 18]. In January, 1787 the king George III reported about this plan in the speech in parliament. To order transportation of the first party of exiled in the Australian “colony of disgrace” as then were expressed, the order of the Minister of Internal Affairs lord of Sydney it was entrusted to the captain A. Phillip. In its order 2 soldiers and 9 transport vessels were allocated.
It is not necessary to think that the most dangerous and inveterate criminals were sent into otdalenneyshy exile. Absolutely on the contrary: there the people condemned for small crimes, for example for theft of two piles of wool, a loaf of bread, four yards of fabric, a rabbit or ten shillings were sent generally [143, page 8]. In the majority it were the exhausted, weak and sick people, among them there are several tens old men, one woman was 87 years old [132, page 8].
Preparation of expedition began in March, 1787, and on May 13 the flotilla left England. Swimming continued more than eight months. On January 26, 1788 the ships approached to Port Jackson. Filip found there as he wrote the lord to Sydney, “the harbor, finest in the world, in which one thousand ships can be in perfect safety” [113, page 26].
From England 1026 people, including officials, their wives and children, and also soldiers — 211, exiled of men — 565, women — 192, children — 18 left. During travel 50 people died, 42 was born. The first seamen were put ashore. They set up the British flag and fired a volley from guns.
The colony pioneer settlement New South Wales called by Sydney in honor of the British Minister of Internal Affairs was so based. For seamen on the coast male prisoners descended (women were landed only on February 6). They were surrounded by the virgin eucalyptus forest. The earth was infertile. There were no wild fruit and vegetables. Kangaroos after appearance of people left on such long distance that there was impossible a hunting for them. When were accepted to the colony device, saw how people are picked badly up for this purpose. Among exiled there were only 12 carpenters, one bricklayer and any person understanding agriculture or truck farming. Filip wrote Sydney: “It is regularly necessary to victual within four or five years a colony, and also clothes and footwear” [113, page 27].
The ceremonial opening of a colony New South Wales took place on February 7, 1788. The judge D. Collins read the royal decree according to which the captain Phillip was appointed the governor of a colony New South Wales. Colony borders were defined by this act: from the North on the South — from the peninsula of Cape York peninsula to the Southern cape with all islands and on the West — to 135 ° east longitude. Then decrees on appointment of officials of a colony and its legislation were announced.
The governor was allocated with such large powers what were no by any administrator in the British colonies. He knew foreign and domestic trade, had the right to distribute lands at discretion, ordered armed forces, made all appointments to positions in colonial administration, had the right to impose penalties, to impose sentences, up to the death penalty, and to exempt from them.
In February 1788 Mr. Phillip for the first time carried out the right to punish colonists the death penalty. For theft of oil, pork and peas T. Barrett was hung up. In two days for theft of flour J. Freeman and his friend were sentenced to death. Filip promised to exempt them from punishment if Freeman agrees to hold the executioner’s position. The last accepted the offer and became the first state executioner in the history of Australia.
Colonists met in Australia great difficulties. To the exhausted people was beyond the power to bring down huge trees and to loosen the stony soil. Filip reported that twelve people require five days to cut down and root out one tree [132, page 17].
Filip had also other cares. In six days after British were put ashore, two French warships under team of the captain Laperuz entered Botany Bay. It is necessary to tell that France very jealously watched progress of British in the Southern seas. Having learned about intention of England to start colonization of Australia, the French government sent Laperuz there to take part of the Australian continent. As French hurried, they lagged behind British also here.
Laperuz’s appearance excited the exiled who saw a real opportunity to run from this the place seeming to them disastrous. The group of prisoners appealed to the French captain to take them on the ships. They promised to bring for it with themselves the prettiest women from number a katorzhanok. Laperuz refused to British. But when the French ships left Botany Bay, the governor Phillip missed two most attractive women of a colony. The gallant French captain captured them with himself.
To provide the best supervision of colonists, almost all of them were concentrated on the small territory. Only small groups went to Parramatta’s region and to Norfolk Island where lands were more suitable for agriculture, than in Sydney. However and there it was not succeeded to reap a little notable crop. In Parramatta, for example, in November, 1788 200 bushels of wheat and 35 bushels of barley were received. All this harvest went to seeds for the following crops [106, page 32]. In Sydney the situation was even worse. Wheat, a maize, and also the seeds of some vegetables seeded somehow by the people who did not have agricultural experience did not give shoots at all. The brought food quickly was exhausted. In a colony hunger began. The ships with supplies as it was promised the government, did not come from England. At the beginning of 1789 the governor sent a frigate “Sirius” to the Dutch colony near the Cape of Good Hope behind the food. The ship delivered 127 thousand. flour pounds, but it lasted not for long. The crop reaped in December, 1789 was very small again, and it was decided to be left for new crops in hope that the ships from England will approach soon. But they were still not.
Then Filip, believing that on Norfolk the good harvest is reaped, decided to send part of exiled there. In February, 1790 to the island the ships “Sepplyay” and “Sirius” by which there were 184 adults and 27 children went. On March 13 arrived were put ashore. But the storm forced out the ships in the sea; in six days they approached the coast again, at the same time “Sirius” came across a reef and sank. The people who got out to the coast learned that the crop reaped on the island cannot provide even the population of Norfolk. “Сеппляй” it was forced to deliver party of exiled back to Sydney. The week food allowance of colonists was reduced to three pounds of flour and semi-pound of corned beef.
Together with the first party of exiled to Sydney delivered the European pets who had to become a basis for development of cattle breeding in a new colony. Many animals died in way. The census made in May, 1788 showed that in a colony there were 7 heads of cattle and as much horses, 29 rams and sheep, 19 goats, 25 pigs, 50 pigs, 5 rabbits, 18 turkeys, 35 ducks, 29 geese, 122 chickens and 97 chickens [52, page 75]. All of them, except horses, sheep and cows, were eaten by colonists. The remained animals generally died due to the lack of forages, habitual for them. A small amount of the sheep who survived and adapted to the Australian pastures were broken off by dingo dogs.
Hunger in a colony amplified. Any penalties it was impossible to keep hungry people from plunder of shops, from theft of the food. And these measures were very severe. For example, punished for theft of couple of potatoes in 500 blows of a whip and for 6 months deprived of the portion of flour relying them.
With the ships of the First fleet which were coming back to England, Filip sent to the British government of the letter to whom asked to send urgently the food and agricultural tools, and also free settlers for the organization of farms, promising to transfer to the last as labor of prisoners. But the answer was not.
At last on June 3, 1890 the Australian colonists saw the British vessel “Lady Yuliana” entering the gulf. It was the first of the ships of the Second fleet sent by the English government to Australia. The disappointment of colonists when they learned that by the ship there is no food was big, but are 222 female-katorzhanki.
Later also other vessels of the Second fleet which brought over 1000 more exiled to New South Wales approached. As a part of this fleet there was a vessel, loaded the food, but on December 23, 1789 at the Cape of Good Hope it ran into an iceberg. To rescue the ship which began to sink, it was necessary to throw out all stocks of the food in the sea.
Conditions of transportation of exiled were terrible. Shipowners received 17 f. 7 prickers. 6 pence for each person irrespective of, he will be brought to Australia live or dead. Therefore on the ships tried to ship as much as possible prisoners.
That exiled did not run away to swimming time, held down them ranks, and in such situation they were in holds of the ships many months of a way. There were cases when the dead long remained among live which hid death of the companions to receive their portions of food. In way 267 people died. From survived 488 were seriously ill. Within six weeks after arrival in Sydney about 100 more people died.
Till August, 1791 to a colony there arrived 1700 exiled, and in September of the same year — about 1900 more people. Thus, the population of New South ales exceeded 4 thousand people (together with soldiers and officials).
Some satisfactory crops did not manage to be reaped still. And if not the food delivered by several ships from England the population of a colony would die with hunger.
Transportation of convicts continued. Conditions of their transportation remained very heavy. Even in the thirties 19th century mortality in way was rather high. So, from 4981 exiled sent to Australia in 1830 in way 45 people, in 1831 — 41 of 5303, in 1832 — 54 of 5117, in 1833 — 63 of 5560, in 1835 — 37 of 5315, in 1837 — 63 of 6190 died [79, page 217]. And in the first decade of settling of Australia mortality was bigger. For example, the ship which arrived to Sydney in 1799 brought only 200 of 300 exiled. About 100 people died in way [79, page 214].
Situation in New South Wales continued to remain deplorable. The captain Phillip had to create the self-sufficient colony in Australia, but within five years of his governorship New South Wales completely depended on deliveries from England. During this time the colony cost to the English government 500 thousand f. Art. [162, page 54]. As it was already noted, Filip persistently asked the government to organize sending to New South Wales free settlers to create steadier basis of colonization of the remote continent. In one of letters the governor wrote: “Fifty farmers with the families in one year will make for creation of the self-supplied colony it is more, than one thousand exiled” (tsit. on [160, page 19]). But wishing to go voluntarily to “a disgrace colony” in England there was very little.
For the first five years of existence of a colony there arrived only 5 families of free colonists though the British government undertook all expenses on moving, free of charge victualed for two years, gave the earth and made available to immigrants of exiled for processing of the earth, and even food of these exiled was carried out at the expense of treasury.
Filip gave the earth to the prisoners who served punishment sentences, to soldiers and sailors. But them was very little (in 1791 — only 86 people), and they processed a little more than 900 acres of the earth. Only after the governor acquired the right to reduce punishment terms, it managed to bring the general size of the sites processed by the released exiled to 3,5 thousand acres.
In 1792 Mr. Phillip returned to England. Together with it also the group of military seamen bearing security service was returned home. In a colony there was Polk of New South Wales which soldiers began to arrive to Australia since 1791. This regiment was generally formed of the soldiers and officers who compromised themselves on the former duty station with theft, alcoholism, etc., or let out from military prisons where they served sentence for various criminal offenses.
After departure the commander of a regiment major F. Grouz began to fulfill duties of the governor of a colony. He appointed officers to all civil positions, distributed to military the earth and the received sites concluded for processing. In total he distributed over 10 thousand acres.
250 acres of the first-class earth around Parramatta were received by the officer J. Makkartur who became subsequently “the father of the Australian sheep breeding”. At that time he held a post of the inspector of public works, and all labor of a colony was at his disposal. Makkartur directed prisoners to farms and managed over them court at discretion. He did not forget and own interests, widely using work of prisoners on the lands belonging to it. It is not sophisticated that in two years J. Makkartur became the richest person of New South Wales. Leaving England, it had 500 f. the Art. is long, by 1801 its property was estimated at 20 thousand f. St.
Soon F. Grouz’s actions led to the fact that the power in New South Wales passed to officers of a regiment. They monopolized all trade operations of a colony, and first of all trade in alcoholic drinks. Officers forced prisoners to drive for them alcohol and sold it at the fabulous prices. The income from sale of alcohol reached 500%. Seeing it, the prisoners who served sentence and the received land plots, and also soldiers of a regiment were engaged in production of alcohol. On these purposes there was a grain intended for production of bread.
Rum became the only real currency in a colony, for the sake of its acquisition people went on any crimes. “In this new small terrestrial hell which early Sydney was people above all were eager for rum. For the sake of it the most cruel of prisoners killed at night and plundered those who had it. They paid in rum to public women … For the sake of rum they spied one after another and betrayed each other” [143, page 14].
Officers by sharing the cost bought all goods brought to a colony by the British vessels and resold them to the population, getting up to 300% of profit on these operations. Almost all prisoners worked at the lands belonging to officers of a regiment. In essence, it was the slave labor, with only that difference that slaveholders fed the slaves, and the prisoners working for officers of a regiment were on the state providing.
- Makkartur wrote the brother: “Changes which happened since departure of the governor Filip are so big and unusual that the story about them can seem improbable” [79, page 721].
- Twain who visited Australia in the nineties 19th century when in memory of the population memories of these events were still fresh wrote in the book “On the Equator”: “Officers undertook trade and besides in the most lawless way … They began to import rum, and also to produce it at own plants … They united and subordinated to themselves the market … They created the closed monopoly and strong held it in hand … They made rum currency of the country — there was almost no money — and kept the harmful power, keeping a colony under thumb years eighteen-twenty … They accustomed to alcoholism all colony. They accustomed to drinking settlers, appropriated their farms one for another and grew rich as kreza. When the farmer completely became an inveterate drunkard, they tore off from him seven skins for a rum drink. The case when for rum gallon cost the farmer gave a ground which in several years was sold for hundred thousand dollars” [65, t to two dollars is known. 9, page 90-91].
The new governor, the naval captain D. Hunter, arrived to a colony on September 11, 1795. But it could not break domination of officers of the regiment nicknamed “the rum case”. It did not work well and to the following governor — the captain U. Bligh famous for the courage and persistence. The rebelled sailors of the ship “Baunti” landed it in May, 1789 among storming waves of the Pacific Ocean in the small boat with 18 crew members betrayed to it. The providences left on will, people did not die. After 48 days of terrible deprivations the captain Bligh brought the boat to the island of Timor which was in one thousand miles from that place where they were landed from the ship. From this Dutch colony of Bligh and his companions delivered to England.
Bligh entered fight against Polk’s officers of New South Wales: forbade them duty-free trade in alcoholic drinks, did not allow Makkartur to construct distillery. Then officers decided to overthrow the governor. They collected a regiment and with the developed banners went to his house. In half an hour Bligh was arrested and imprisoned in barracks. Management of a colony was taken in hand by the commander of a regiment major Johnston. Makkartur was appointed the secretary of a colony.
It occurred on January 26, 1808, in 20 years after arrival in Australia of the First fleet. Within two next years the power in New South Wales undividedly belonged to “the rum case”. Bligh was the whole year under arrest, and then was sent to Earth Wang Dimenga.
Only on December 31, 1809 to a colony there arrived L. Makkuori sent by the English government for establishing order, and together with it the 73rd infantry regiment. L. Makkuori had the following instructions: to reinstate as Bligh, but only for one days to accept from him a governorship; having become the governor of a colony, L. Makkuori had to cancel all appointments, judgments and distribution of lands which took place since Bligh’s arrest.
- Makkuori with a scrupulous accuracy carried out these instructions. When on January 17, 1810 Bligh returned from Earth Wang Dimenga to Sydney, Makkuori arranged to it a magnificent meeting — with salute, parade, illumination and a ball in the governor’s house. After that Bligh was sent to England. Together with it “the rum case” led by the commander Johnston left New South Wales. Makkartur was also forced to leave Australia. On arrival to England Johnston and Makkartur appeared before the court.
The first steps in studying of the Australian continent
There passed two decades after creation of a colony, but inhabitants of New South Wales did not knew that represents all fifth continent. By this time only separate sites near Sydney, the small ground which was in 90 miles to the North from Sydney and also the district of Hobart on Earth Wang Dimenga were investigated. Australia, as we know, occupies the space in 3 million sq. miles, i.e. almost equal to the area of the United States and by 50 times the exceeding territory of England.
The first attempt to pass the Blue Mountains which are in 40 miles to the West from Sydney was undertaken only in May, 1813. Expedition consisted of three employees of a colony — G. Blekslenda, U. Uintvort, U. Lauson — and five prisoners. In two weeks they reached the western slopes of the Blue Mountains and found fine pastures on which it was possible as members of expedition claimed, “to feed all cattle of a colony within the next thirty years” [162, page 30]. Blekslend, Uintvort and Lauson were generously rewarded for the opening. Each of them received a ground of 1000 acres in size.
By order of the governor prisoners began to construct the road to newly opened areas hastily. In January, 1815 L. Makkuori could already pass on it to the new city of Bathurst constructed” in 120 miles to the West from Sydney.
Activization of research by British of the Australian continent was promoted by three circumstances: attempts of French to locate in Australia, need to settle the arriving exiled, and also a lack of pastures and water.
In 1801 the French ships “Geographer” and “Naturalist” under command of the admiral N. Boden investigated the southern and western parts of Australia. After that British hurried to proclaim the formal possession of Earth Wang Dimenga, and then started creation of settlements in Makkuori-Harbore and Launceston. Settlements appeared also on east and southern coasts of the continent — on the place of the present cities of Newcastle, Port-Makkuori and Melbourne. D. Oxley’s researches in 1822 in northeast part of Australia led to creation of the settlement near the Brisbane River.
Expedition of the French captain Zh. Dyumon-Dyurvill induced the governor of New South Wales to create in 1826 on the southern coast of Australia the settlement the Western Port and to send the major E. Lokyir to the passage of the King George in southwest part of the continent where it founded the settlement which received subsequently the name of Albany and declared distribution of the power of the British king on all Australian continent. The British settlement Port-Essington was founded in an extreme northern point of the continent.
The population of new outposts of Britain on the Australian continent consisted of exiled. Their transportation from England went more intensively from year to year. It is considered that since the basis of a colony and to the middle of the 19th century was sent to Australia to 130 – 160 thousand prisoners [79, page 210]. As settlements were from each other at huge distance, besides the actual annexation of territory also other objectives — dispersal of exiled were achieved.
Due to the rapid growth of a livestock of sheep new pastures and sources of fresh water were required. In 1810 the colony made only 167 pounds of wool, and in 1829 — about 2 million pounds [106, page 91-92]. “As it is impossible to force Arabs of the desert to live in limits of a circle, nacherchenny on sand — the governor of a colony of Gipps said — it is so impossible to limit movement of sheep breeders of New South Wales to certain borders; it is obvious that if it was made … herds of cattle and sheep of New South Wales would die and to wellbeing of the country the end came” [160, page 40].
Southeast and southern parts of Australia, their system of the rivers Oxley, G. Hulme, A. Kanningkhy and Ch. Stert investigated in the twenties the XIX EL. The contribution of the last is especially considerable.
In 1826-1828 in a colony there was the strongest drought. From lack of forages the cattle fell, the harvest perished. Colonists rushed about in search of new pastures and water. “Huge trees, died. An emu, having extended necks, greedy gasped, suffering from thirst. Native dogs were so thin that could hardly move. Natives starved. They brought the children to white people, asking to give to some food” [133, page 38-39].
The governor of New South Wales of that time R. Darling sent the captain Ch. Stert for searches of the new rivers or maybe big closed seas which, in the opinion extended then, had to exist in the depth of the Australian continent.
Expedition Is erased continued from November, 1828 to April, 1829. Investigating Makkuori’s river, It is erased found out that it terminates in a big bog, overgrown reed and a cane. But soon it found to the West from Makkuori the stream flowing on the North. Moving on it, It is erased reached the wide, deep river called by it in honor of the governor of a colony Darling. Water in the river was salty, its coast were absolutely naked, very stunted vegetation met only in marshy places.
Results of expedition could not satisfy the governor of a colony, of course. In September, 1829. It is erased at the head of small group undertook new expedition. On September 25 it reached the river Murrumbidgee. The locals who met to it claimed that it — inflow of other big river. Then It is erased, having taken with itself six people, began the research Murrumbidgee. Expedition: moved with huge difficulties on the unfamiliar river. On January 14, 1830 travelers reached its mouth and entered other big river. It is so erased opened one of the largest rivers of Australia, having called its Murray — in honor of the British minister of colonies of that time.
Were not in time It is erased also his companions to be glad to the opening as they were met by the trouble which was nearly costing them life. Unexpectedly their boat ran aground, and soon they were surrounded with crowd of the natives who are adjusted very aggressively. Collision seemed inevitable, British prepared for deadly fight. But suddenly the native of huge growth seemed ashore. He rushed to the river and floated to a shallow. Having reached it, he scattered the people who were there, approached the boat with British and welcomed them as friends [133, page 39-40]. Throughout all further way British met from locals only friendship.
After 33 days of traveling, having passed by the boat of 1000 miles, It is erased and its satellites found the lake called by them Aleksandrina, by name the British princess. Moving further, they found a way out to the high sea. It was the big victory. Only on May 25, 1830. It is erased with companions returned to Sydney.
The expedition investigating system of the rivers of South Australia proved that it is possible to reach by the waterway the southernmost tip of the continent, and also found big spaces of the fertile lands extremely convenient for colonization. “I — reported Is erased — never saw the country which would have more advantageous position … we received five million acres of the beautiful earth” [106, page 67]. Its message caused colonization of South Australia.
Opening It is erased haunted the major T. Mitchell. This ambitious person could not reconcile with the fact that he, the senior in a rank, was not appointed the head of expeditions. When in 1831 Darling favoring Sterta left a colony, T. Mitchell undertook the first expedition. It was going to find the river as if flowing into the gulf Gulf of Carpentaria about which it was told by the exiled D. Clark living some time among natives. Expedition terminated in failure: the river flowing on the northwest, Mitchell did not find, but reached the rivers Wash also Gvidir. In skirmish with locals he lost two people and all stocks of the food therefore he was forced to return back. It should be noted that all expeditions of Mitchell, unlike expeditions It is erased, were followed by numerous skirmishes with natives. The spiteful attitude of Mitchell towards the last was fault to it, undoubtedly.
During the second travel Mitchell reached the Darling River near that place which approached Is erased. It is interesting that Mitchell found water of Darling absolutely fresh. The strengthened camp, the called Fort Bourke then expedition moved further on the river flowing was constructed as of it it was convinced not trusting Sterta Mitchell, to the river Murray. The further course of expedition was stopped by the new bloody skirmish with natives which forced to turn travelers back.
The third expedition of Mitchell led to opening of the territory to the South from the Murray River. This earth which as Mitchell claimed, “will be able to give rise to wheat even during the most droughty seasons and will never become a bog in the most rainy time” [106, page 69], was called “Happy Australia”.
Continuing expedition, Mitchell left to the seashore around a bay Portland. Participants of expedition were very surprised, having found in a bay the vessel, and ashore — the European settlers. It were colonists, in two years arrived from Earth Wang Dimenga before.
Among pioneers of southeast part of Australia there are two Polish researchers — Ya. Lkhotsky and P. Stsheletsky. Ya. Lkhotsky who arrived to Sydney in 1833 gave the first description of the area where now there is Canberra, and the mountain chain called now the Australian Alps. P. Stsheletsky who appeared in Sydney in 1839 investigated in 1840 the most southern part of the continent called by it Gippslend in honor of the governor of a colony of that time, and the first rose by the highest mountain of the Australian Alps which he called Mount Kosciusko.
Approximately in the same time research of the western part of Australia began. The first expedition headed by D. Eyre came out Adelaide on June 18, 1840, in day of twenty-five year anniversary of fight at Waterloo therefore farewell it was especially solemn. 6 people with two vehicles, 13 horses and 40 sheep went to a way. — the British settlement of Albany on the bank of the passage of the King George — on June 7, 1841 came to a terminal point of travel only Eyre, accompanied with the native by the name of Willie. Next month Eyre by the ship went back to Adelaide where arrived on July 26.
In 1844 already fifty-year-old Ch. Stert resumed the expeditions. This time he wanted to investigate the central part of the continent. On August 15, 1844 it left Adelaide, going to the North. Travel continued till 1846. It is erased it was convinced that the center of Australia represents the real desert which it could not overcome. The seriously ill patient who went blind he returned to Adelaide.
Already mentioned T. Mitchell tried to investigate northern part of Australia the first. In 1845 it reached a river basin of Barcoo, but because of a lack of edibles returned back. The greatest contribution to research of the North of the country was made by L. Leykhgardt and E. Kennedy.
The authorities of New South Wales in every possible way encouraged researches of northern part of the continent, hoping that they will lead to opening of the shortest and convenient trade way connecting a colony to India.
- Leykhgardt, the native of Germany, at university in Goettingen got acquainted with Englishman D. Nikolson; further it accompanied it on trips across France, Italy and England. Without having found work in England, Leykhgardt in October, 1841 went to Australia. It arrived to Sydney in February, 1842 and soon proved as the capable scientist. It went to the first travel in August, 1844. Through. 16 months Leykhgardt reached Port-Essingtona. Travel was very difficult. It is a lot of months Leykhgardt and its satellites did without flour, sugar, salt and tea, whole a quarter of year they ate only dried beef [52, page 218].
Having returned to Sydney, Leykhgardt began to prepare new expedition. He intended to reach the continent North, having rounded the desert found Erased in its central part. It was supposed that travel will be very long therefore provisions took for two years.
On December 12, 1846 expedition as a part of seven Europeans and two natives came out from Darling-Dauns. Travelers had 15 horses, 13 mules, 40 cows, 270 goats, 100 pigs and 4 dogs [133, page 72]. However the most part of cattle fell, edibles were almost entirely spent, people suffered from fever. Without having achieved anything, Leykhgardt in 7 months returned back.
Failure did not stop it. In April, 1848 Leykhgardt went to the North again. It was accompanied by 6 people. This time business came to an end in a complete disaster: expedition disappeared in continent depths. Within the first two years lack of information about her did not cause special concern in New South Wales as she was calculated on long term. On in 1851 the authorities of a colony began searches which did not yield results. The destiny of participants of expedition and remained the unknown.
In April, 1848 Sydney came out one more expedition which had to investigate the continent North, find the most convenient way to the Southern Asia and choose the place for construction of port on the northern coast of Australia for trade with the Asian countries. Headed E. Kennedy’s expedition, taking earlier part in T. Mitchell’s expeditions. To reduce time, the part of a way was done by the ship.
On May 21, 1848 travelers reached harbor Rokgempton and were put ashore. The terrible heat, the marshland, almost impassable thickets forced them to refuse the planned route — on the northwest, to the Gulf Gulf of Carpentaria. They went along the northeast coast of the continent, but also here met the same difficulties. Besides in a month frequent skirmishes with locals began.
In August expedition had to reach the gulf of the Princess Charlotte where it was waited by the ship which is specially sent there. But Kennedy and his satellites reached the gulf only in October when the ship already left. Rescue was in reaching to Port Albany. But to make the exhausted, hungry and sick travelers could not any more. Only one participant of expedition — the native by the name of Jackie-Jackie came to Port Albany in December, 1848. The ship for searches, the survived members of expedition was at once equipped. On December 30 the ship reached the gulf of the Princess Charlotte. From eight people who reached here only two survived. All others, among them and Kennedy, died.
The expeditions on research of the Australian continent which were taking place with such difficulties and losses were of very great importance for expansion and strengthening of the British domination in Australia.
Formation of colonies Tasmania, South Australia, Western Australia, Victoria and Queensland
At the beginning of the 19th century, after the Amyensky world of 1802, Napoleonic France resumed researches of the Pacific Ocean. As it was noted above, the ships “Geographer” and “Naturalist” successfully investigated the southern and west banks of the Australian continent and Earth Wang Dimenga. On April 8, 1802 they met the British ship which was ordered by M. Flinders. Boden assured Flinders that French show purely scientific interest in this area. But when in Paris the card on which the area located between the peninsula of Wilson’s Promontory and Spencer’s gulf was designated as “Napoleon’s Earth” was published, and rumors spread that the French government intends to create the settlement on Earth Wang Dimenga, the English government and the authorities of New South Wales decided that it is necessary to accelerate both formal, and actual occupation of Earth Wang Dimenga.
The governor of New South Wales King sent the lieutenant Robbins to Bassov having spilled. It was officially declared that Robbins has to study in more detail coast of the Australian continent and Earth Wang Dimenga. The confidential instruction obliged the lieutenant to monitor actions of French and in case of need to declare officially British domination in the area the Bass owl of the passage.
Robbins met French on King Island. Having put ashore with three sailors, he, to surprise of French, immediately proclaimed the island property of the British king, hoisted the English colors, gave triple salute and left the island. Then Robbins visited Port-Fillip on the continent, and also the area of the Derwent River on Earth Wang Dimenga and left two soldiers for confirmation of the British property on these lands there.
In a year before in Port-Fillipe the English officer D. Murrey visited. He recommended to the government to use this place as an additional ssylny colony. Based on the report of Murray, lord Hobart, the minister of colonies of that time, ordered to the lieutenant colonel D. Collins to head expedition for. organizations of a new colony. In October, 1803 330 prisoners on two vessels were brought to Port-Fillip. The place was not pleasant to Collins. According to the instruction given it by the British government he had the right to choose other territory for a colony provided that searches of new, more convenient place will not be tightened. Therefore in February 1804 Mr. Collins transported all colonists to Earth Wang Dimenga and landed them where now the city of Hobart is located. Here he met the nineteen-year-old lieutenant D. Bowen who by order of the governor King with small party of free colonists and prisoners in September, 1803. based in this place British poseleniye-Rukovodstvo the integrated colony Collins assumed.
In the first years of existence of a colony on Earth Wang Dimenga immigrants met such difficulties what were not known by colonists of New South Wales. The English government believed that supply of a new colony has to be carried out from Sydney, the governor of New South Wales considered that this business of the British government. Communication between Sydney and Hobart was supported only by small vessels belonging to a colony New South Wales and was incidental. If not meat of the emu and kangaroo who were available in a large number on the island the population of Hobart would die out soon.
The British government occupied Earth Wang Dimenga prisoners and free colonists, without caring for the corresponding material basis. In November, 1804 on the northern coast of the island, near the place where now the city of Launceston is located, there was the second colony which was headed by the colonel Peterson. In 1813 both colonies were independent from each other and submitted to New South Wales. The relations between Peterson and Collins became aggravated to such an extent that the governor King was forced to divide administratively the island into two parts — northern, called Earth Kornvoll, and southern, called Bukingkhemshir. In 1813 the official in the rank of the assistant to the governor of New South Wales who became actually the head on the island was sent to Hobart.
Gradually new colonies began to become stronger. If in 1813 in Hobart 2 thousand acres of the earth, then in 1819 — yes 8 thousand acres were processed. In 1820 Earth Wang Dimenga already exported wheat and meat to New South Wales. At this time on the island there lived 5500 people, from them 2538 prisoners, 2880 free settlers; the livestock of cows made 30 thousand, sheep — 180 thousand [123, page 11],
In December, 1825 Earth Wang Dimenga officially became an independent colony. Same year in England the Company of Earth Wang Dimenga who had to promote development of agriculture and cattle breeding on the island was created. To the middle of the 19th century 170 thousand acres of the earth were processed here, there were 1,7 million sheep and 80 thousand heads of cattle [79, page 185-186].
However the colony continued to carry lines of the exiled of the settlement considerably. It was explained by the fact that even at the beginning of the second half of the 19th century prisoners made one third of the population of the island. Their transportation in this colony was stopped only in 1853.
The power of the head of administration of the island was actually boundless. It, the English historian of X wrote at that time. Melvill, “exceeded the power of any sovereign in the Christian world” [146, page 212]. Conditions of keeping of prisoners were worse, than in other British colonies in Australia. Not surprisingly therefore that as soon as possible exiled tried to run. Runaway convicts united in groups of “bushreyndzher” which directed horror at all colony. To catch and destroy these groups, the authorities organized numerous bloody expeditions.
The free population of a colony demanded to stop transportation of exiled on the island. In 1845 the British government promised to fulfill this requirement: within two years not to send prisoners to Earth Wang Dimenga. After this term the minister of colonies lord Gray declared that the government Wang Dimenga for exiled of settlements will not use Earth from now on. But actually prisoners continued to arrive to the island and in the next years. So, in 1845-1847 3 thousand people were brought. Only since 1854 Earth Wang Dimenga was carried to colonies in which it was forbidden to send prisoners. In the same time the colony was renamed into Tasmania, in honor of the pioneer of the island A. Tasman. The name Earth Wang Dimenga which exiled changed the earth to Chertova disappeared, using a word-play — Van Diemen’s Land and Van Demonians Land.
If New South Wales and Tasmania arose as exiled of a colony, then South Australia from the very beginning was a colony of free settlers. Her organizers tried to embody in practice ideas of one of the most visible ideologists of the British colonialism of the first half of the 19th century, E. Uekfild formulated by it in work of “The letter from Sydney” which was published in 1829. K. Marx devoted to analysis of the theory of E. Uekfild the separate section in the first volume of “Capital”.
The ambition was the main trait of character of Uekfild. It brought it into Nyyugeytsky prison in London. Thirty-year-old Uekfild served as the secretary of the English Embassy in Paris, was widows, had two children and cherished ambitious dream to become the member of the British parliament for which implementation it lacked money. To grow rich, he decided to marry rich. Uekfild learned that fifteen-year-old Ellen Tarner is the only heir of the large industrialist.
Uekfild never saw the girl, but it did not confuse him at all. It arrived to the Liverpool school and demanded from the director to release Ellen with it under that pretext that her mother is seriously sick. He told the girl that her father was suddenly ruined and for rescue of a family she has to marry it. Probably, Uekfild was very eloquent as they got married immediately. Then newly married hasty left to France. However their honeymoon was right at the beginning interrupted. To France there arrived two uncles of Ellen and took away it home. Uekfild also soon came back to England, but was arrested and sentenced to three years of prison. So his dream to become the member of parliament broke.
And then it chose other field of activity which glorified his name: he became the creator of the theory of “systematic colonization” and “sufficient” land value in colonies. Uekfild proved that it is necessary to colonize transatlantic territories not by expulsion of convicts there, and involvement of quite “respectable” people. Land value in colonies have to be so high that colonists got it after arrival not at once, and having only worked a row of years. “Sufficient” land value will prevent transformation of colonists into independent peasants; when they them become, there will be others, ready to take their place in the market of wage labor [1, t. 23, page 782].
Money from sale of land, according to Uekfild, has to go mainly for involvement of new immigrants, and partially — for needs of colonies where the layer of small colonists who will make a firm basis of outposts of Britain in various parts of the globe will gradually grow and become stronger. Thus, that part of the English society which as a result of industrial development of the country was left without work and was real threat to the existing order of things turned on the Wednesday cementing the British Empire.
In 1830 Uekfild developed active work of practical implementation of the ideas. It promoted much the fast organization of National society of colonization which the same year issued the brochure entitled “A statement of the principles and the purposes of estimated national society for healing from a pauperizm and its prevention by means of systematic colonization”.
Approximately at the same time, when E. Uekfild’s book was issued, data on the fertile lands in the valley of the Murray River opened Erased came to England. A business community of England on which Uekfild’s book made big impression, became interested in an opportunity to carry out the ideas stated to them. In 1831 negotiations on creation of the company which purpose would be a colonization of the lands which are in the south of the Australian continent began.
At the meeting of National society of colonization which was taking place on August 3 under the chairmanship of the colonel of Torrance the plan of colonization of South Australia which provided creation of the company with the capital of 500 thousand f was approved. to the Art. divided into 10 thousand actions, each worth 50 f. St. The company had to buy lands in the southern part of the Australian continent and base there a colony, having undertaken all financial responsibility connected with its organization and existence.
Soon the offer was sent to the government about the colony basis on the southern coast of Australia to a Colonial Office which answered that it does not intend to consider the plan for a being until the money necessary for implementation of activity of the planned company is raised [163, page 58-59]. Thus, the solution of a question of creation of a colony in South Australia hung in mid-air.
However this circumstance did not discourage E. Uekfild and his friends. It founded the Southern Australian association which in December, 1833 developed the new project of colonization of the southern Australian lands. This plan provided the organization of the Southern Australian land company at the expense of which it was supposed to create a colony. This time the Colonial Office was positive to the project. On April 15, 1837 the minister of colonies Stanley answered association that its project is approved though with essential additions and corrections [163, page 68-69].
June 3, 1834. The southern Australian association called the first public meeting at which there were 2,5 thousand people. The audience was acquainted with the plan of creation of a colony. To the same time in the English parliament there was a discussion of the project developed by association which got approval of both chambers. Issued in the form of the law, the project was signed by the king and enacted by the royal decree of August 15, 1834.
In the law it was emphasized that creation of a colony has to be carried out by the Southern Australian land company. It was provided that the power in a colony will belong to the governor appointed the king, and the representative of the company. The captain D. Hindmarch became the governor of a colony, the representative of the company — X. Fischer, the representative of council of the Southern Australian land company — the colonel Torrance. The basis of the capital of the Southern Australian land company was made by a contribution of the rich businessman D. Enges of 320 thousand f. St. The company collected the additional capital by sale of the rights for the land plots in the area about which then not only in London, but also in Sydney had, in essence, no idea. The company sold shares which granted to their owners the right for 120 acres of the earth in the territory of an estimated colony and 1 acre in its future capital.
For involvement of colonists in England special brochures were issued, lectures were given. Torrance wrote the book “Colonization of South Australia” which was published in June, 1835. The first party of colonists was supposed to be sent to South Australia in September, 1835. However sale of sites dragged on till November, and was decided to postpone expedition to the next year. It began in March, 1836.
In July, 1836 three ships of the company which had onboard 546 colonists approached Kangaroo Island which is at coast of South Australia. They remained on the island before arrival there in August of the colonel Leith who chose the place for the capital. Now there is Adelaide.
The organization of a colony went quickly. In December there arrived the governor of a colony D. Hindmarch. It did not like the place chosen for the capital, and he tried to find another. It caused serious friction between it and officials of administration of a colony, ended with Hindmarch’s resignation and his replacement in 1838 on the governor’s post by Gouler.
The first years of existence of a colony were characterized by enormous land speculation. Actually, the aspiration to fast enrichment by speculative resales of the land plots acquired by them was a main goal of both the most Southern Australian land company, and colonists. The system granting the right for 15 thousand acres of the earth to the person who bought from this quantity at least 4 thousand acres on 1 f was widely adopted. the Art. for an acre. The rest of the earth was bought by it gradually at the price already of 5 prickers. 4 pence for an acre [52, page 134-135]. It led soon to the fact that all fertile lands fell into hands not of hardworking farmers who as E. Uekfild assumed, the persistent work will create richness of a colony, and speculators the earth, in the majority living not in Australia, and in England.
There passed 4 years since the colony basis, but nothing was made for development of agriculture and cattle breeding. The colony almost made nothing. In 1837 from the sold 3700 acres only 4 was processed; in 1839 170,5 thousand acres were sold, and 443 were processed. The cost of import of a colony in 1839 grew to 346,6 thousand f. the Art. whereas the cost of export made only 22,5 thousand f. St. The administration which did not have means for development of the territory, construction of ports, roads, etc. was forced to ask for the help the government. As soon as it became known in London, among shares holders and creditors of the Southern Australian land company the real panic began. They hurried to get rid of actions and showed bills for payment. The company was the bankrupt. The colony endured full financial breakdown, people ran from a colony. For several months its population decreased half. There were only those who had no opportunity to leave. Food prices catastrophically grew. The land plots could not be sold. Most of land owners, including the governor of a colony Gouler, were completely ruined.
Rumors about a distress of colonists of South Australia reached other British colonies on the continent. The most enterprising cattle-farmers and farmers of New South Wales and Port-Fillipa began to get into South Australia, hoping to use its fertile lands with benefit. By the end of 1841 on pastures of South Australia 50 thousand sheep were grazed already. Deposits lead, and in 1843 — copper ore were the same year found. The cattle breeding and the mining industry became a basis of economic development of a colony. Also its population grew; in 1850 when South Australia acquired the rights of self-government, it made 63 thousand people.
Huge spaces of the central and northern parts of the continent administratively were a part of South Australia. As it was already noted, their development was connected with searches of the most convenient trade way to India. In 1817 for careful research of the northern coast of Australia the lieutenant F. King was sent. In the report King reported to the government that the northern coast — the ideal place for construction of seaports. On the basis of its report the British government sent to this region of the captain Mr. Bremer which in 1824 founded the first British settlement there — Port-Essington.
But in general huge spaces of northern part of the continent remained undeveloped. Numerous attempts to base there settlements did not make success. They quickly enough stopped the existence. Together with them the hope to use ports of the northern coast for trade with the Asian countries died away.
Only in 1863 when the Northern Territory was administratively subordinated to a colony South Australia, to it for a while again there was an interest. There the resident who founded the small settlement named by Palmerston in honor of the British prime minister of that time was sent. But South Australia could make nothing for development of the huge and remote area. In 1911. The northern Territory passed under direct management of the government of the Australian Union. The city of Palmerston was renamed into Darwin.
Like South Australia, Western Australia originally arose as a colony of free settlers. In 1826 the governor of New South Wales Darling charged to the captain D. Sterling to investigate the western coast of Australia for creation of the British colony there. Having returned to Sydney, the captain reported in the report that the most suitable for the organization of a colony is the area of the river Suwon. He pointed to healthy climate, fertile soils, security with fresh water, and also to the advantageous geographical position allowing to create there port through which it would be possible to trade with the countries of the East. D. Sterling emphasized that it is necessary to work quickly in view of real threat of the French occupation of this area. The governor Darling supported D. Stirlinga’s proposals and sent his report to London. However the British government did not find it possible to undertake burden of expenses on the organization of a colony.
In the middle of 1828 D. Sterling, being in London, again addressed the government and volunteered to direct expedition on the organization of the British colony on the western coast of Australia. As the British government motivated the first refusal with what cannot foot the bill on the device of this remote colony, D. Sterling suggested to create private syndicate.
This time the government frightened of rumors about possible occupation of the western coast of Australia by French listened to a persistent voice of the captain. However it considered that the colony has to be organized not by individuals, and the state. First of all it was necessary to carry out official capture of the western part of the Australian continent as before Great Britain formally, J. Cook’s lips, proclaimed the power only over his east part. For this purpose in November, 1828 the captain Freemantle by the ship “Challenger” went to west banks of Australia. On May 2, 1829, having landed in the mouth of the river Suwon, Fremantle proclaimed the British sovereignty over the territory ten times exceeding the sizes of Great Britain. A business community of England showed a great interest to a new colony. In November, 1828 the group of business people of London headed by T. Pil suggested the British government to deliver 10 thousand in a colony. the person, for what asked to transfer it 4 million acres of the earth. The government agreed only to 1 million acres. It was established that each colonist will acquire the right for the land plot in 40 acres provided that he will pay 3 f at once. the Art. and within the first three years of use of the earth will spend for its processing not less than 3 more f. St.
The captain Sterling was appointed the head of a new colony. In June, 1829 the first party of colonists in number of 50 people arrived to coast of Western Australia. It is necessary to tell that among them there were almost no people who would intend to process “by the sweat of the brow” virgin lands of the fifth continent. To far Australia they were attracted by thirst of fast and easy enrichment. The company on colonization of Western Australia in every possible way praised highly fertility of new lands. Colonists, getting almost for nothing the land plots near the river Suwon, hoped that shortly they will gain income which is not inferior to those which land owners in the English counties have.
Counting on cloudless, rich life, colonists brought grand pianos, graceful carriages, thoroughbred trotters, expensive hunting dogs, etc. from England. The first two cities of a colony were soon put: Perth and Fremantle. The cruel reality disseminated delusions of British soon. The earth was infertile. Because of an acute shortage of the food the cattle had to be hammered, and to distribute meat to colonists.
The sheep brought from England could not adapt to local pastures and perished. Besides the company very quickly sold most and best part of the earth received from the government to very limited circle of colonists. So, in 18 months after creation of a colony of 70 colonists got the right for half a million acres of the earth near Perth. The others received the earth further and further from the coast. Dense forest thickets and lack of roads did not only their processing, but also access to them very difficult.
As the colony made nothing and did not conduct trade operations, money at it was absent. Distribution of the land plots was the only form of remuneration. Even the governor of a colony of Stirling earned a salary the earth. It was given 100 thousand acres.
By 1832 the total area of the sold land plots made one million acres. But they were not processed. Colonists began to leave inhospitable coast. The population of Western Australia from 1830 to 1832 decreased from 4 thousand people to 1,5 thousand.
Rumors about a distress of a colony reached coast of England, and the number of persons interested to go to Western Australia sharply decreased. In 1832 only 14 colonists arrived to Perth, in the next years situation significantly did not change, despite the broad advertizing organized in England by the West Australian association which was founded in London in 1835. The organizer of a colony T. Pil was ruined. His family returned to England, he continued to live in a colony in poverty. The priest Uollaston who visited him in 1842 so describes the dwelling Sawing: “He lives in a poor house from a stone, with a roof from a cane. Everything around it demonstrates that he is the broken person” [79, page 199].
The West Australian company created in London in the late thirties — the beginning of the 40th years, tried to intensify colonization of Western Australia. In 100 miles to the South from Perth it was supposed to put the city — the center of a colony — and around it to lodge colonists, selling them sites in 100 acres at the price 1 f. the Art. for an acre. The first party of colonists (414 people) arrived to the planned area in March, 1841, in 1842 their number increased to 673 [100, page 16]. But the people agitated by the company soon, having been disappointed in the new homeland, began to run up. For example, in 1845 left a colony 129 people more, than arrived [100, page 16].
In 1848 in Western Australia the first official census according to which population of a colony later after its creation made 20 years only 4622 persons was carried out [100, page 17].
The idea of the organization of free settlers obviously failed. Then the authorities of a colony in 1849 appealed to the British government to send prisoners, using whom they hoped to develop at last the valid development of a colony. This request met support, and transportation of prisoners to Western Australia began. Within 18 years 10 thousand exiled were brought there. Only in 1868, because of a resolute protest of the next colonies which indicated that Western Australia became “the pipeline via which moral sewage of Great Britain pours out in the Australian colonies” [106, page 7], expulsion of prisoners to Western Australia was stopped.
Political and economic development of Western Australia went more slowly, than other colonies on this continent. In 1849 in Western Australia there were 134 thousand sheep and 12 thousand heads of cattle. 7,2 thousand acres of the earth which half was sowed with wheat were processed [100, page 20-21]. Western Australia acquired the rights of self-government only in 1890.
If all colonies of which it was talked above arose from blessing of the British government, then Victoria appeared contrary to intentions of the government, but as it often happens to “illegal” children, showed big viability and soon became one of the richest British colonies in Australia.
As it was already noted, in 1809 to the southern coast of Australia the captain Collins went to organize there the British settlement, but, without having found enough fresh water, he landed the satellites on the bank of Earth Wang Dimenga.
The authorities of New South Wales still reluctantly went for any expansion of the territory of a colony. In 1829 the governor Darling broke a colony into 19 districts which borders were forbidden to be expanded strictly. All territory of a colony stretched for 300 miles in length and 150 miles width.
But when the major Mitchell in 1836, investigating a river basin Murray, left to the southern coast of Australia, he saw settlements of the British colonists there. They, working at own risk, came from Earth Wang Dimenga here.
The first in December, 1834 there arrived to the area Port-Fillipa E. Henry’s family, at the end of May, 1835 — small group of colonists (only 14 people) led by D. Betman. They had the lawyer who issued the contract with locals for “purchase” of the earth. It would be possible to call this act comic if it had no character, so humiliating concerning natives. For several blankets, knives, braids and a small amount of flour the group “got” the rights for 600 thousand acres of the fertile earth. “Contract” was made in English, and natives, putting under it the signs, did not know about its contents.
Of course, British could not trouble themselves and to these. The document on purchase and sale of the earth was created by them to prove to the authorities of New South Wales “legality” of acquisition and to avoid payment of money to the British government.
But neither the governor of New South Wales, nor the British government, having learned about formation of the settlement in the area Port-Fillipa after a while, did not recognize valid the contract signed by D. Betman with locals. They recognized from the fact that after J. Cook’s opening all Australian lands are property of the British crown, but not natives.
However colonists were not confused by anger of the administration. They created own administration, court as a part of three people, established laws according to which nobody had the right to sell a site within at least five years. The admission in a colony of prisoners was forbidden. Import of alcoholic drinks was not allowed. For extermination of wild dogs of the dingo interfering development of cattle breeding, the administration of a colony paid 5 prickers. for each killed dog.
In several weeks after D. Betman and his satellites landed in Port-Fillipe, there arrived from Earth Wang Dimenga one more group of colonists led by D. Foukner. In June, 1836 in the area Port-Fillipa there lived already 177 people owning 26,5 thousand sheep, cows and 60 horses.
But the main flow of colonists moved not from the South, and from the North. After opening by Mitchell in 1836. “happy Australia” numerous colonists from Sydney directed there.
The colony in Port-Fillipe became stronger, and the governor of New South Wales Burke remained nothing else how officially to recognize its existence. In September, 1836 the governor’s representative captain V. Lounsdeyl with four officials and fourteen soldiers was sent to Port-Fillip. And in March, 1837 Burke visited a new colony and the Port-Fillipu gave it to the capital the new name — Melbourne, in honor of the English prime minister of that time. Then it founded the settlement which was called by Vilyamstaun, in honor of the British king William IV.
In 1839 the colony was included in structure of New South Wales. Colonists Port-Fillipa protested and demanded office on the ground that New South Wales is a colony of prisoners, and Port-Fillip — a colony of free settlers. England, one of representatives of colonists said in London Port-Fillipa, it has to be interested in possession “in the free colony based on the principles of the world and a civilization, philanthropy, morals and moderation” [79, page 188-189].
The British government at that time refused to colonists their request. The office Port-Fillipa from New South Wales happened only in 1850. At the same time the colony received the name Victoria, in honor of reigning then British Queen Victoria. During this period the colony was inhabited already by 77 thousand people. On its pastures over 5 million sheep were grazed [79, page 189].
In spite of the fact that from the territory of modern Queensland J. Cook in 1770 proclaimed Australia property of the British crown, this area long time had no English settlement. Only in 1821 the small ssylny colony in Port-Makkuori was created.
In 1823 the governor of New South Wales T. Brisben decided to create one more ssylny settlement to the north of this area. For this purpose it sent the waterway of D. Oxley there. Floating along the northeast coast of the continent by the ship “Mermeyd”, Oxley reached the area Port Curtis. The place was not pleasant to it, he returned to the gulf Moreton and unexpectedly met on the bank of two British there — Finnigena and the Lampoon. They put out to sea from Sydney by the small boat, without having a compass. The flown storm incurred the boat to the ocean. When British moored to the coast, decided that they are to the south of Sydney, and went along the coast to the North. Actually they moved in the opposite side as after a storm approached the coast located to the north of Sydney. People would die if not the help of natives. Wandering together with them, British well studied the district. They told that nearby there is a river flowing into the ocean which coast are convenient for the organization of a colony. Moving in the specified direction, expedition really found the river which Oxley called Brisbane, in honor of the governor who organized expedition. Upon return to Sydney Oxley recommended to create a new colony on coast of this river. Brisbane itself was visited by Morton and approved Oxley’s choice.
In September, 1824 there arrived the first party from 30 exiled here. In the instruction which the governor gave to the commandant of a colony lieutenant Miller, page 85 was spoken that “exiled first of all have to clear away the territory for the settlement and when it is made, to prepare it for free settlers” . The settlement was built on that place where now there is a capital of Queensland — Brisbane.
The colony remained only the place of the reference for a long time in spite of the fact that in 1827. A. Kanningkhy found lands, very convenient for cattle breeding, to Darling-Daunse. In 1830 in a colony there were 1 thousand prisoners and 100 soldiers protecting them. In the thirties Brisbane did not make impression of the city [79, page 192]. Only in 1840 P. Lesley brought the first herd into the area Darling-Dauns. By 1851 in the town there were 2 thousand inhabitants. Also other lands which are to the West and the North from this area were developed.
The act of 1850 provided separation from New South Wales not only Victoria, but also all territory to the north 30 ° southern latitude for creation of the self-coping colony there. However it occurred only in nine years. The act of 1859 the northern part of New South Wales was proclaimed a separate colony and received the name Queensland. By this time the British population of a colony made 28 thousand people