System of the Spanish school education
The public and private sector of school education are rather developed in Spain; besides, there are educational institutions of secondary education receiving the main part of financing from church. Each Spaniard aged till sixteen years is obliged to get school education – the extensive network of the free schools which are on public financing is for this purpose created. Unfortunately, it is not possible to be admitted to such school for the pupil from abroad practically as first of all the right for free receiving school education is granted to children from rather poor Spanish families. Therefore for foreigners the most suitable option is receipt in private school.
In Spain there are not so many private schools, however they are extremely demanded. It is connected with the fact that education at private school is considered prestigious; on quality it strikingly differs from the education provided with public schools. High standards of progress, a strict daily routine, orientation on comprehensive (including – physical) development of the child characterize the Spanish private schools.
In Spain such schools are of special interest for foreigners also for other reason. The matter is that among them there are specialized educational institutions in which teaching is conducted at the same time according to two programs and in two languages (most often it is Spanish and English). Thus, the foreign student has an opportunity to learn at the same time two languages. However to get to such school it is already necessary to have a certain knowledge of English (in certain cases – and Spanish). After successful training at high school pupils, as a rule, continue study according to the Bacchilerato program. This step of education is not among obligatory, but without its passing further training in Spain is impossible.
The system of the Spanish education consists of the following stages:
· Preschool education
· Basic school education
· The higher education
Preschool education includes kindergartens and elementary school. The Spanish kindergartens carry the name Jardin de enfancia – children aged from two to three – contain four years here. After that children pass into elementary school and study at this stage from three to five years. Preschool education is optional.
At the age of 6 years school students begin training in the program of basic secondary education which is obligatory. The first five years children are trained at one teacher (Educación Primaria). The next three years training is conducted already by several teachers (Educación Secundaria).
The educational program at the Spanish schools includes a number of the objects obligatory to studying (including – Spanish, geography, history, etc.). School students can independently choose other objects on the basis of own preferences.
On reaching fourteen years the pupil has an opportunity to continue the training at school or to receive the initial level of professional education (Formacion Profesional). At successful examination, pupils can come to Bachillerato.
The finishing step of school education – Bacchilerato – is focused on preparation for receipt in a higher educational institution. At this stage there is a division of pupils according to the chosen specialization for profound studying natural, the humanities, art, social and technological objects. Before passing of the Bacchilerato program it is necessary to pass selection by results of testing. After its termination final examination of Selectividad which at the same time is introductory for transfer in higher education institution is also taken.
Entrance examination of Selectividad is carried out centrally and is analog of uniform state testing in Russia. The possibility of the correspondence passing an examination is of a certain interest to foreigners though successful passing of testing demands, as a rule, preliminary preparation.
Procedure of receipt in higher educational institutions of Spain
Examination of Selectividad allows to estimate the general education level of the pupil, preparation in profile objects. Each university gives the lowest passing score at receipt.
Passing an examination demands a certain preparation. Successfully to pass examination to the foreigner, it is necessary or to be trained on the course Bachillerato, or to complete an intensive course of preparation. Also for receipt in the Spanish higher education institution the foreigner needs to confirm knowledge of Spanish, having passed examination of DELE, Diplomade Espanol como Lengua Extranjera. This examination can be passed both in Spain, and in Russia.
System of the higher education of Spain
As well as secondary education, the higher education of Spain is divided into a private and state segment. In 2010 Spain joined the Bologna European education system. According to new system, the structure of the highest education includes three levels.
· Bachelor degree (Grado)
This degree can be received on any specialty. Duration of training makes 4 years.
· Magistracy (Master)
The second step of the higher education can be passed only after the termination of the first. The magistracy allows to receive narrower specialization in concrete area, and also to be prepared for research activity in the chosen sphere.
Duration of training at a magistracy makes from 1 to 2 years.
This degree is analog of our postgraduate study.
Degree of doctorado can be received only after the termination of a magistracy as only in this case the student has preparation for scientific activity in the specialty. Duration of training makes from 1 to 2 years.