At the beginning of government of the sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (1520 — 1566) at which the Ottoman empire reached a zenith of the power the main direction of the Turkish expansion changed. After successful campaigns against Persia and a gain of Egypt Suleiman addressed against Southeast Europe. In 1521 Belgrade which within many decades was successfully maintaining attacks of Turks was taken. The way to Hungary was open. In 1522 the island Rhodes was occupied and conditions for further Turkish approach in the Mediterranean Basin are created. The sultan dispatched the spies everywhere. Usually it were the Christian renegades hiding the transition to Islam. Turks as intelligence agents quite often were trapped because of ignorance of the European customs, customs and religious practices. For example, one of agents so reported about a Catholic mass at which he was present: “They killed a lamb and drank his blood”. Much more useful was an information obtained from the middle of the century through Bachet founded in Constantinople Iosif Mshsas who had communications with merchants in Venice, Seville, Antwerp and other shopping centers. On August 29, 1526 in fight at Mokhache the army of the sultan crushed the Hungarian troops. The most part of Hungary fell under the power of the Turks, in September who turned, as usual, back not to conduct winter campaign. After defeat at Mokhache Hungarians could expect to resist approach of Ottomans, having only given a royal throne Gabsburgam. However claims Gabsburgov on domination in Europe distracted them from fight against the Turkish approach which reflection was vital for the Hungarian people. Moreover, the policy Gabsburgov which was pushing together them with France generated the union between Paris and Constantinople. This alliance excluded a possibility of a support on the French help for those forces in Hungary which sought to conduct fight on two fronts — against Turks and the empire. On September 21, 1529 Suleyman’s army accompanied by auxiliary troops of the Hungarian king Zapoliya put by Turks rose to walls of Vienna. The number of besieging reached, according to some data, 240 thousand, and they brought with themselves 300 guns. The garrison of the city totaled 22 thousand soldiers and 12 guns. The archduke (future king) Ferdinand prior to the beginning of a siege went to Linz to keep in a continuous communication with the brother — the emperor Charles V who was in Italy. At court of Ferdinand considered that, having taken Vienna, Turks within the next three years will rush into Germany. However the siege dragged on — the winter came nearer, and on October 14 Suleyman ordered to begin retreat. The Turkish invasion was reflected (as showed time — for a long time) though Ferdinand considered that next year the sultan will repeat attempt to occupy Vienna. The siege of Vienna blew the mind of Europeans. The whole eight centuries — since fight at Poitiers in 732 in which Karl Martell reflected attack of Arabs — never countries of Western Europe outside the Iberian Peninsula were exposed to invasion from the Muslim East. From the second half of XV and the beginning of the 16th century the subject of the amplifying Turkish danger constantly was discussed in scientific works, about it national singers at fairs composed ballads, about it “the Turkish bells” in the different German cities called, calling for repentance in sins to smilostivit God’s anger without which there would be no progress incorrect. It is interesting that in German the word “newspaper” (Zeitung) for the first time, apparently, arose in connection with the anti-Turkish propaganda. In 1502 the selection of news of “Newe Zeitung von Orient und Auffgang” of fight of Venetians against Turks was printed. Trying to obtain from German, including Protestant, princes of monetary contributions for reflection of the Turkish invasion, Charles V had to go in 1532 for signing of the world with them. And it, in turn, facilitated to princes-Protestants association in the Schmalkaldic League. After removal of a siege of Vienna military operations moved to border of Austria and Hungary occupied by Turks. After 1562 the border between possession Gabsburgov and Ports remained, as a matter of fact, invariable during the whole century though almost continuous armed clashes at this boundary quite often developed into big battles and constantly there was a danger of new ottoman invasion. The imperial ambassador in Constantinople Busbek in the early sixties warned, nodding on power of the sultan: “From the Persian border almost to vicinities of Vienna he subordinated all to the yoke”. From 60th years the main direction of the Turkish expansion moved to the Region of Mediterranean again. In hands Ports there was already most part of the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, and the Turkish impact all proceeded. On cards of the 16th century the South was usually represented on leaf top, and the North — in a bottom: the huge half moon of the Turkish possession in the north of the African continent as if hung over Europe. The governor of Algeria of Hayr-ad-din Barbarossa put by Suleyman at the head of the Turkish fleet in 30th and 40th inspired fear in all Western Mediterranean. Attempts of Spaniards to put counterstrokes on the coastal cities of North Africa in general terminated in a total failure. Charles V at the head of 20 thousand soldiers landed in 1541 about Algeria, but soon had to raise a siege of the city and, having lost nearly a half of army, hardly escaped from the Turkish ships pursuing it. In 1560 Spain undertook expedition for the purpose of reconquest of the city of Tripoli, in nine years occupied by Turks and being rather near the island Dzherby before. However the Turkish squadron disseminated the Spanish ships, 10 thousand soldiers of Philip II were sent by captives to Constantinople. The new gallery fleet constructed in the next two years was almost destroyed by a storm during maneuvers near Malaga in October, 1562. Fighting capacity of the Spanish fleet hardly managed to be restored only by 1564 when it could resume approach against the Turkish strengthenings near Tetuan again. It, out of doubts, forced Philip II to make concessions in the Netherlands (a response of the chief minister-cardinal Granvell). And in 1565 Turks began a siege of Malty on which outcome the destiny of the Western Mediterranean depended, and Philip II again for months did not respond to letters of the ruler of the Netherlands, the sister Margarita Parmskaya. But here Turks were forced to raise a siege, and the king in two letters to Margarita of October 17 and 20, 1565 completely rejects all requirements of the Netherlands opposition, expressing full support of actions of inquisitors. It was declaration of war dissatisfied which answered with open disobedience. In 1566 the Turkish fleet resumed approach, and at the height of its progress Philipp sends the letter to Margarita ordering to soften laws against heretics. In September, 1566 ottoman fleet, without having achieved success, returned to Constantinople, and soon the sultan Suleyman Velikolepny died after that, in the empire military mutinies, revolts in provinces began. In November, 1566 the Spanish government decides to send the most tempered shelves of the Spanish army to the Netherlands, having put at the head of their duke Alba — the resolute opponent of any compromises in the relations with the Netherlands rebels. However these parts were sent to the Netherlands from Milan only in June, 1567 when it became clear that Turks did not undertake the next approach. The Turkish fleet did not appear in the Western Mediterranean neither in the 1567th, nor in 1568, allowing Philip II to spend all cash for the maintenance of army of Alba in the Netherlands. The interrelation of these events was quite acquired in the Western European capitals and the more so in the Netherlands. So, for example, William of Orange wrote to siege time by Turks of Malta: “Turks are very big threat; it means how we believe that the king will not be (to the Netherlands. — Bus) this year”. On October 7, 1571 at Lepanto (about the coast of Greece) there was the largest sea fight of the 16th century. It was also the last large battle of rowing fleet. 300 galleys of the Spanish king and his allies which had onboard 80 thousand soldiers and seamen attacked even more numerous Muslim fleet. Prayers of kneeling soldiers by the ships which lifted flags with Christ’s image mixed up with a war-call of Muslim soldiers. Several hours cruel fight in which both parties tried to ram and board the enemy ships lasted and in hand-to-hand fights to destroy their team. Battle terminated in a checkmate of Turks, winners sank or seized three quarters of enemy vessels. In introduction to “Instructive short stories” Cervantes wrote, speaking about himself in the third party: “In sea fight at Lepanto the shot from an arkebuz at it crippled a hand and though the mutilation it seems other disgrace, in his eyes it — is fine because he received it in one of the best-known fights which were known in the past centuries and which can happen in the future …”. In the different countries the victory at Lepanto is inclined to be considered as a Christianity victory in fight against Islam and not just as success of Catholicism or even only one Spain. Titian created the picture “Spain Which Came to the Rescue Religion” in which Philip II appeared as the sky tool punishing both incorrect, and heretics. The famous Spanish poet Fernando de Herrera, finishing well-known “The ode on fight at Lepanto”, exclaimed:
On all edges in honor of the Lord yes to the sky an incense
Ascends, souls of pigheads of convicts —
In Gehenna fiery.
I see them burned!
The Scottish king Yakov (Maria Stewart’s son) who is brought up in Protestantism in the childhood wrote the poem in honor of a victory at Lepanto which published in 1591. However, he right there received repulse from the Scottish church which declared that “very not respectively, like the hired poet to write its dignity and religion the poem in honor of a foreign papist bastard”, that is the commander of the Spanish fleet Don Juan Avstriysky, the illegal son Charles V. However and after fight at Lepanto Spain had to keep 9-thousand army in Sardinia and create the reserve case in 10 — 12 thousand soldiers for strengthening of positions in other Areas of Mediterranean. Soon after Lepanto France offered the union to the sultan. The Spanish deputy in the Netherlands the duke Alba wrote about French: “They would be happy to lose one eye if we at the same time lost both”. Venice signed the separate contract with Porta, having got in exchange for contribution payment permission to resume the levantiysky trade”. Heads of the Netherlands revolt in 1566 and 1567 sent the ambassadors to Constantinople, but Turks were limited only to promises of the help. In the early seventies William of Orange tried to achieve along with support of a number of the European powers also the help of the sultan and Algerian бея in implementation of the plan of liberation of the Netherlands. In 1574 the sultan sent big fleet for capture of Tunisia that weakened the Spanish positions in fight against the Netherlands insurgents. Collisions with Persia (too, by the way, the getting lines of the century conflict) constantly distracted attention Ports from Europe especially as the tradition by which the sultan had to head large Turkish army in general excluded conducting if not war, then active military operations on two fronts at once. Selim I’s wars with the Persian shah Ismail prevented gains of the Turkish sultan in Europe. (It even induced the emperor Charles V to enter negotiations with the Persian shah on the union against turok13.) And approach and plans of approach in Europe of Suleyman Velikolepny failed more than once (in 1533, 1548 and 1552) because of military campaigns against the Persian shah Tamaspa I. In the middle of the 16th century the imperial ambassador Belgian Busbek mentioned above wrote: “When Turks will settle the relations with Persia, they will take us by the throat, relying on power of all East. As far as we are not ready, I do not decide to tell”. Therefore, already since time of government of the father Yuli II (1503 — 1513) Rim sought to grope ways of cooperation with Persia, despite the huge then obstacles created by remoteness of this potential ally. (Time which left on delivery of correspondence and the more so a parcel of diplomats took not months, but years, and more than once by the time of obtaining information the situation cardinally changed or the addressee managed to die.) After the father such attempts were made by Venice, and then the emperor Charles V and his brother Ferdinand. Fight at Lepanto had no such crucial importance what to it was originally attributed by the triumphing participants of the anti-Turkish league, and is frequent also the subsequent generations. Turks very quickly filled the suffered losses. However, in 1572 and 1573 Spaniards managed to achieve serious achievements in North Africa. In the fall of 1573 the squadron under team of Don of Juan Avstriysky took Tunisia and Bizerte. But to hold won there were not enough means. In the summer of 1574 the new Turkish fleet which was not conceding on power to that which participated in battle at Lepanto won Tunisia and returned with triumph to Constantinople. To contemporaries it was not let know that such solemn return became the last in the history of ottoman fleet. And the reasons for that lay in internal developments Ports, but not in the remote consequences of fight at Lepanto. On the way to the homeland the Turkish ships were late about the island of Corfu that recovered former fears and fears of Venice. The huge Turkish fleet threatened Sicily. In 1574 Tunisia, and in the 1576th — Morocco Ports fell under the power. Philip II ordered to send the secret agent to Constantinople for negotiations, about a truce. Only the death of the Persian shah and concentration of attention Ports on the conflict with Persia induced the sultan to agree in March, 1577 to the termination of military operations which the formal truce in 1580 followed. Plans of establishment of the Spanish domination in the Mediterranean Sea by a victory over Porta vanished as a smoke. In 1578 began as it was already specified, new war of Turkey with Persia which proceeded till 1590 and within these 12 years occupied the best armies Ports. Already from the middle of the 16th century the question of the union as means of disposal of the Turkish threat was openly discussed with Persia even in pamphlet literature. Philip II who annexed Portugal to the possession tried through the Portuguese colonies in Africa to establish stronger relations with Persia and, according to some data, even sent skilled gun masters there. And in 1585 among opponents of Gabsburgs seriously started talking about the secret contract between Philip II and the Persian shah on the partition of the world (Spain had to get Europe, and to the shah — Asia). Rumors and about intention of the shah of Abbas (1586 — 1628) to pass into Christianity and that he allegedly already carries under outerwear a cross in honor which feeds for Jesus Christ went. Strategic motives closely intertwined with prospects of development of the favorable trade attracting a particular interest of the English and Dutch merchants. “The Persian card” was persistently played both at the beginning of the 17th century, and during Thirty years’ war. Already since the end of the 15th century impact on a ratio of forces in the conflict with Islam was exerted by growth of power of the Russian state. Still more it affected from the middle of the 16th century — at the beginning of government of Ivan the Terrible who annexed Astrakhan and Kazan.
Chernyak E. B. Century conflicts