Sack of Rome by troops of the emperor Charles V

Battle of Pavia
Battle of Pavia

Reformation as it is paradoxical, temporarily strengthened the papacy position in relation to many secular sovereigns. Their attempts to nominate the antipope stopped, opposing him to the high priest in Rome as it repeatedly happened in the Middle Ages. Now the monarchs fighting against Rome preferred to take the part of Protestantism and to become in this or that form the head of the national reformed church. In the countries which remained Catholic to expose the antipope became a fruitless task as Rome individually decided now that it is or is not Catholic. But nevertheless on May 4, 1527 under walls of Rome there was a big imperial army which ordered by constable Bourbon who betrayed to the French king and came over to Charles V’s side. Many German landsknechts were the Lutherans hating the center of Catholicism which was in their eyes concentration of all defects. The father declared to residents of Rome, whatever is in the house heretics to city walls that they found death in requital for the sins there. On May 5 constable led the troops on storm. He was killed at the very beginning of an attack, but the German and Spanish shelves rushed on streets of Rome soon and arranged bloody slaughter. Having convinced that the city is taken by the enemy, the Pope Pius VII hurried to retire from Vatican in fortress St. Angel. When he ran along a long corridor in the strengthened lock, the historian Pavel Iovy carefully bore a loop of a cloak of the Roman high priest and covered it with the cloak and a violet hat that the father was not noticed and enemy soldiers did not hit. More difficult it appeared to take cover from a history verdict. While Kliment VII listened to requirements of winners, soldiers of imperial army, having got on on himself clothes of cardinals, clownishly proclaimed the new father of Martin Luther. Contemporaries told that in the first day imperets killed 7 or 8 thousand inhabitants. Catholic priests became a subject of special hatred of landsknechts, many churches were plundered, the invaluable works of art which were there died. Also palaces of cardinals including those which took the side of the emperor underwent the same fate. However for the second day after capture of the city aggressors restrained the ardor a little, being limited to repayment collection. The Spanish soldiers subjected the captives to distinguished tortures, seeking to find out places where gold and jewelry were hidden. Stendhal, stating many attestations of eyewitnesses in the “Walks across Rome”, adds: “Charles V who at that time was only twenty seven years old, understood that it is possible to battle against Rome only its own weapon; when he learned about the horrors which were created on its connivance seven months, he suited a solemn procession, asking god about release of the father which depended only on him”. The emperor’s secretary Alfonso de Valdez declared that Rome was punished for the sins of the father and his yard preventing establishment of a consent and unity of Christian churches in fight against incorrect. In plunder of “the sacred city” contemporaries saw an omen of a close doomsday. (It, however, repeatedly expected also in other occasions, also Charles V gave in to panic.) When in several years, in 1534, Michelangelo returned to Rome, he saw the spoiled Raphael’s fresco on which the dagger cut out a name of Luther. As the American historian P. Parker emphasizes, it was “the blasphemous defilement of the great holy sites of Catholic Christianity which is carried out at that very moment when doctrines of the German Reformation had to extend in other parts of Europe and when the word “Protestant” just about had to be born”. And this blasphemy was made on behalf of the emperor, the head of Catholic camp who employed supporters of the new, not strengthened yet dogma in the troops to use them against Protestants and against opponents in own camp. However, contemporaries and even Roman high priests remembered this plunder of Rome not for long — it was covered by other events and interests. It is indicative that Charles V’s troops took and plundered not Wittenberg where Luther’s theses, and not Geneva which became later the center of Calvinism were published. Still in the early thirties the XVI position of papacy left open a way as to unleashing of wars against the German Protestant princes, and to establishment of the religious peace in the empire achieved in practice only after these wars. An opportunity to put pressure upon the Roman throne through the Spanish possession in Italy (the kingdom Naples and the duchy Milan) was one of the most important resources of policy of Charles V. However at the same time here also roots the hidden, obvious hostility of the father to the majority of plans and actions of the emperor were put. Vatican actually had no strong allies, except for very unreliable support from England before accession to the throne of Elizabeth I. In the 40th years Charles V had to make considerable efforts to involve to the sir in war against Protestant princes. Pavel III observing to displeasure of the emperor, a neutrality in war between Charles V and Francis I, in exchange for various concessions agreed to conclude the alliance for eradication of heresy which was signed in June, 1546. However at the beginning of 1547 Pope Paul III began to doubt correctness of the decision — the clear victory of Charles V over his opponents in Germany politically threatened to subordinate finally to it and the Roman throne. The Tridentsky cathedral which gathered in 1545 became the arena of fight between Rome and the emperor, especially in 1546 when Charles V was at top of the progress. At the same time Paul III tried to rely on support of the French king and accused the emperor that he hides religious nature of war against the German Protestants. In reply Charles V declared to the apostolic Nuncio that he did not mention a name of the father in the manifestos as because of his bad acts it became hated not only in Germany, but also in many other countries Christian mira7. Paul III rejected the rights of the German Reichstag as secular meeting to authorize conditions of the compromise world which Charles V tried to conclude with the German Protestants, and declared that it would be usurpation of powers of the Tridentsky cathedral. The emperor sought for reforms of Catholic church which could weaken resistance of Protestant camp whereas the father — to the solution of questions of religious dogmatics and strengthening of powers of the Roman throne which was unacceptable even for considerable part German katolikov8. The relations between the emperor and the father continued to worsen up to Paul III‘s death in 1550 just in years when dispute between Charles V and Protestant camp in Germany was solved. Disagreements dragged on for many years and continued also at Paul III and Charles V’s successors. Paul IV elected in 1555 to the Roman throne fed unsatiable hatred for Spaniards and hoped to undermine their power over Naples and Milan. The nephew of the Pope Carlo Caraf became the inspirer of the Spanish policy. The father hurried to build this adventurer to whom attributed numerous crimes and murders, in a cardinalate. In October, 1555 Paul of IV even declared to the emperor war which expansion was interfered by a truce between Charles V’s empire and France. The father made desperate attempts to induce the French king Henry II to resume war. Italy and the Netherlands became the field of battles again. When Charles V abdicated, the father hurried to declare that the emperor went crazy like the mother Huan Bezumnoy. In 1557 Spaniards broke French at Saint-Cantene, both the same year exhausted by war and France, and Spain declared the state bankruptcy, having refused payment of old debts. Inhabitants of Castile — a support of the Spanish monarchy as prince Philipp (future king Philip II) wrote in 1545 — “are finished to such an extent poverty that many of them have even no clothes”. Economic exhaustion adjusted the conflicting parties on more conciliatory harmony and led to the conclusion in April of the world in Kato-Kambrezi. This peace treaty between two strongest Catholic powers was drawn to many contemporaries as the base of the European world. On the occasion of the world Philip II who was already in time to contract twice marriage and to become a widow/widower for the third time married the daughter of the French king Elizaveta. Second marriage of Philip II — on Maria Tudor who died in 1558 — promoted transition of England, though short-lived, in camp of Catholic Counter-Reformation. But whether the third marriage of the Spanish king marked strong reconciliation Gabsburgov and Valois which would mean radical strengthening of Catholic camp? The famous poet Ronsar admired then “the divine world, fine as he a morning dawn”, and the marriage union, “closely connected Spain to France bonds with which forever fastens love …” The Head of the Netherlands opposition William of Orange later characterized dynastic marriage of 1559 as plot against religious freedom of Europe. In practice this world though in France it was considered compelled and though the conclusion it was promoted by the father Pavel IV, least of all could be considered as success of Catholic camp. He put end under the first attempt of a military victory of the Counter-Reformation topped with creation of the world Catholic empire. Also decade after this world time of a wide circulation of Protestantism in a number of the European countries, especially in France and the Netherlands did not become casual at all. To the conclusion of the contract in Kato-Kambrezi the father also had to request the world from the empire. The pope managed to imprison him only thanks to aspiration of Philip II who came in 1556 to the Spanish throne to turn the Roman high priest into the obedient partner. The Spanish commander duke Alba who arrived in the fall of 1557 to Rome (future bloody deputy in the Netherlands) on a lap asked the father about the world and … demanded an unconditional recognition of the Spanish dominion in Italy. In 1559 Pope Paul IV died, and the new Pope Pius IV ordered to declare that his predecessor was killed by own nephew, and after the comedy of court sent the cardinal Carafa to a scaffold. Charles V died on September 21, 1558 in Yuste’s monastery in Estramadura’s mountains. In three weeks prior to death it expressed really “sepulchral” wish — to listen to own requiem mass”. It was also a lifetime funeral of the universal monarchy — the guiding purpose of all his life. However, Charles V’s successor was not inclined to interpret so experience of the first half of a rough century at all.

Chernyak E. B. Century conflicts

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