Programs of the higher education in the English-speaking countries differ on two main levels – with undergraduate (a bachelor degree or post-secondary education) and (post-) of graduate (magistracy).
Duration of the undergraduate programs – from three (Great Britain) till four years (the USA and Canada). It is connected with distinctions in approaches to training. If in Great Britain the subjects relating to specialization are studied from the first semester, to the USA within the first two years of training there is a general education, obligatory for all (General Education or GE). Moreover, the American higher school is so democratic that it is optional to entrant to decide on a choice of future specialty at the time of receipt in higher education institution. He can choose it during passing of GE.
In Great Britain the three-year qualification is applicable not to all undergraduate programs. There are programs lasting four years, for example, in the field of economy and management, and the fourth year (in case of its successful termination) gives the chance of receiving degree with honors (honors degree).
In the English-speaking world young people get senior secondary education by 18 years, and unlike Russia secondary education in the USA, to Great Britain and Canada 12-13 years last. In each of these countries of the requirement to foreign entrants have both the general moments, and distinctions.
Level of proficiency in English.
Receipt in higher education institution requires the good knowledge of English which is confirmed officially by results of certain tests. The most known among them – TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) and IELTS (International English Language Testing System). Both of this dough admits any western university as Europe, and America.
Entrants from Russia can come to higher education institutions of Canada and the USA and in 17 years, having on hands the Certificate about senior secondary education (11-year form of education). Besides, for study at university of the USA it is necessary to report results of the SAT test (Scholastic Aptitude Test) in addition.
SAT has two levels – SAT I (“general” when the knowledge of English and mathematics are checked by one dough) and SAT II (“subject” when the entrant at discretion chooses subjects, profile for his future specialization, and in them hands over tests). The higher education institution or the program is more prestigious, the demanded SAT level is higher.
In Great Britain receipt in university possibly only if at the time of the beginning of the high school program the entrant was disaccustomed 12 years. It is the law for all without any exception.
“To tighten” knowledge of English and the main school disciplines to the requirement of the higher school, in Great Britain there are special programs before university preparation (Foundation). Training duration on these programs – one academic year and more. In subject part of the Foundation program are subdivided on: Art & Design (year), Science & Engineering (year) and Pre-Medical (1,5+ years).
The higher medical and legal education in Great Britain, the USA and Canada
Programs of training of the practicing doctors and lawyers are most demanded and popular in the modern world.
As high introductory requirements (a GPA of an assessment of knowledge of school subjects not lower “4,5” by five-point system), and distinctions in policy of the English-speaking countries for entrants foreigners in many respects are determined by it.
Canada “is closed” for Russians. Its government believes that in national higher education institutions only citizens of Canada – those who under the law will bear responsibility for the professional actions have to get medical and legal education and regularly to pay taxes.
The USA “are open” for Russians, but at the time of receipt and Americans, and foreigners have to have the bachelor’s degree (or its equivalent) on any specialty confirming 4 years of training.
Britain “is also open” for Russians. The entrant does not need to have the bachelor’s degree, but for foreigners there are special Foundation programs for future physicians.
System of transfer in universities in Great Britain, the USA and Canada
Everything without exception entrants of the British higher education institutions arrive through national electronic system. It significantly facilitates passing of all stages, beginning from a choice of programs and introduction of data on herself before transfer confirmation.
In the USA and Canada such uniform national system is not present.
The program of training in a magistracy in Great Britain is calculated on average on one and a half years. In the USA and Canada duration of master programs usually year.
Master programs, the professional experience, as a rule, is necessary for training on which are calculated on longer terms (from one to three years). First of all it concerns the MBA programs (Master of Business Administration, the Master of business administration).
Not always the entrant has opportunity to enter the MA course and at once to pass all way to receiving master degree, there are cases when study in a magistracy is impossible because of a lack of time, means or other reasons. Therefore in the English-speaking countries there are various versions of programs, gravitating to sedate, but not being those. It, for example, certificates and diplomas of level of a magistracy (so-called Postgraduate Certificates/Diplomas) or programs for the practicing managers (Programs for Executives), the program of distance learning (distance learning programs), etc.
Level of proficiency in English
For receipt in a magistracy it is necessary to have results of the TOEFL or IELTS tests higher of level, than for transfer on baccalaureate programs. Above others the requirement to language at programs in philosophy, business and the right. If the university recognizes as the only weak place of the entrant the level of its language, prior to the beginning of the main program of training he has to complete the special preparatory course Pre-Masters. This course allows not only “to tighten” English, but also to develop it in the direction, profile for future specialization, for example, Pre-LLM (is right)
Today the increasing number of master programs demand delivery of the special GMAT and GRE tests. The GMAT first of all is intended for those who arrives on programs for business administration (MBA, etc.), GRE is an equivalent of GMAT for all other programs (for example, philosophical or technical).
Motivation and professional experience at receipt in a magistracy
The magistracy of the English-speaking world is focused on people mature in professional and in the personal plan. Entrants have to know that they want to reach and thoroughly to reason the purposes in motivational essays (motivational letters). Essays give to selection committees the chance to estimate such important personal qualities as professional experience, leader abilities, ability logically to think, etc. Besides motivational essays, as confirmation of personal qualities and a professional maturity of the entrant the summary (track record) and recommendations of executive or research supervisors, professors, colleagues, and also printing works and participation in various scientific and practical conferences, symposiums or seminars serve.