School in Italy
The secondary full general education in Italy includes the following main steps:
· primary education lasting 5 years.
· first cycle of secondary education lasting 3 years;
· second cycle of secondary education lasting 5 year.
Foreign pupils can get secondary education in Italy only at the international schools or at one of private schools boards.
In six years children are admitted to elementary school of Italy. The first two steps of school in Italy – scuola elementare 1 and scuola elementare 2 – are free for all. All general education objects at this stage – reading, the letter, drawing, arithmetics, music, etc. – are obligatory, only the religion at will is studied. During this time foreign pupils manage to study and master Italian in Italy. Programs of training usually include also studying of one foreign language. Children study five days, about 30 hours a week. At the end of each step testing is held. Instead of figures, habitual for us, the “verbal” system of an assessment is applied (“perfectly”, “well” and so forth).
Traditionally classes at public schools of Italy very big. At the private schools making about 5% of total number, pupils it is less. The program of training at private schools of Italy is identical state, but schools of this type are forbidden to issue the certificates therefore their pupils hand over state examinations on obtaining the corresponding certificate.
Upon termination of the first five-year cycle of training at school in Italy (the two first steps) written and oral examinations are taken. By their results the certificate of elementary school (diploma di licenza elementare) is issued, and pupils pass into high school (scuola media) where study till 14 years. At this stage of education in Italy school students learn Italian, history, geography, mathematics and natural sciences, a foreign language, art, music. After every year of training examinations in system “are carried out it is handed over – not handed over”. Upon termination of all course in scuola media final examinations in Italy are taken: on Italian, mathematics and a foreign language – written, in other objects – oral.
Graduates of high schools of Italy can come to the educational institutions of various profiles ranked in Italy as system of the higher high school (scuola secondaria superiore). These are analogs of professional educational institutions (technical institutes, technical training colleges, schools of arts) and lyceums. In them study from 14 to 19 years.
Preparation for receipt in universities of Italy is made in lyceums. There are three of their versions: classical (liceo classico), technical (liceo tecnico) and natural sciences (liceo scientifico). The program of all lyceums includes the Italian literature, Latin, mathematics, physics, natural sciences, philosophy, history. Graduates take examination (esame di maturita) very similar to the French examination to BAC degree, and receive school-leaving certificates (diploma di maturita) with which it is possible to go to the university.
The classical lyceum (Liceo Classico) is realized 5 summer programs of training with emphasis on humanitarian disciplines, however natural-science objects are present at the second cycle of training. High schools with a scientific bias – natural-science lyceums (Liceo Scientifico) have the programs of training providing profound preparation in natural-science objects. Linguistic lyceums (Liceo Lingtastico) carry out language training with simultaneous studying of literature and history of a civilization. Technical education in Italy at this level is carried out at technical institutes (Test Instituti) and also is calculated on 5 years. Vocational training on other branches of knowledge, including of art, is carried out at professional institutes (Institute Professionale), artistic lyceums (Liceo Artisticq), institutes of arts (Institute di Arte).
All these education programs in Italy lead to obtaining the final diploma (Diploma di Maturita) of various types: classical, scientific, linguistic, technical, administrative, economic, etc. Any of these diplomas opens access to educational institutions of the higher education. Since 1998-1999 academic years, this final school qualification began to be called Diploma di Esame di State conclusivo del corso di…-further the direction of preparation is specified.
UNIVERSITY IN ITALY
Advantages of the higher education of Italy:
· The cost of year of training at the state university in Italy – about 500 euros a year, private higher education institutions establish the prices (9 500 – 22 000 euros).
· The country No. 1 for obtaining the diploma in design and fashion.
· Training in private higher education institutions of Italy is possible in the Italian and English languages.
· It is not so difficult to learn Italian in Italy.
· Italy – one of the most beautiful countries of the world, and Italians are close to us on spirit and lifestyle.
The system of the higher education in Italy includes two sectors: university and not university, and the first is the most developed as it is horizontal (at number of the studied courses, disciplines and directions/areas), and vertically (by the number of levels and typology of the corresponding degrees).
Not university sector of the higher education in Italy includes two main directions:
· the education in the field of arts (school of design of Italy, academy of fine arts, conservatory) which is under authority of the Ministry of Education of Italy or Council for national cultural heritage;
· the professional education which is under authority of local authorities.
Some programs of training have “a long double cycle” – Stomatology, Medicine, Pharmaceutics, Veterinary science, Architecture. To gain the diploma, it is necessary to finish the 1 and 2 cycles of the higher education and to obtain 300-360 credits. Programs of training last 5-6 years. For revenues to these programs it is necessary to take entrance examinations.
Training in Italy is possible both in Italian, and in English. Having finished the program of Italian at language school in Italy, you get serious chance to enter to the university chosen by you. Courses in English are given by private universities in Italy, branches of English-language universities and school of fashion and design in Italy.
Schools of fashion and design in Italy
Italy – the country No. 1 in the world where come behind the diploma in design and fashion. You can study at such world famous schools of design of Italy as Domus Academy, Istituto Marangoni, etc. Schools of design in Italy offer the first the highest, second higher education, short-term advanced training courses and summer programs of training in the most different areas – design in fashion, management in fashion, interior design, graphic design, design of accessories, management of a brand, image consultant, design of advertizing, landscaping, architecture, interactive design, design of cars, media design, scenic design and many other things.
Training at school of fashion and design in Italy lasts from 1 to 4 years. System of degrees – European. Upon termination of you can gain the diploma, degree of the bachelor or the master’s degree. Training at school of fashion and design is held in English or Italian.
Universities of Italy
At universities of Italy the vast majority of students is trained. In total in Italy 47 state universities and 9 independent, having the state license. At universities of Italy many medieval traditions remained. On holidays students wear multi-colored kepis in style Robin of Goode, and “beginners” pass a dedication ceremony in students.
For obtaining the first diploma of laurea (C.L.), corresponding to the bachelor level in Anglo-Saxon system, it is required to study at university of Italy 4-6 years. In particular, philologists can receive this degree in four years, chemists and architects – in five years, and physicians – through six.
The following degree corresponding to master is called Diploma universitario (C.D.U.). The course lasts three years. There is also two-year course of specialization Scuole dirette a fini speciali following the results of which it is possible to receive the degree similar to C.D.U.
At universities of Italy “the credit system” (CFU) works. The university credit usually corresponds to 25 hours of training. Usually annually the student “earns” 60 credits.
For the educational period at university the student needs to study 19-20 disciplines, including facultative. Visit of occupations is obligatory, and students even celebrate days of visit of lectures and seminars in the record books. Upon completion of a course of any level pupils defend the thesis. Assessment “basis” for it is made by an arithmetic average of results of all examinations passed by the student. Depending on performance of the examinee on protection the commission can lower or raise a final assessment. If you did not meet with examinations and the diploma in time, then can study so many how many it will be required. Motto of the student: “Did not hand over – you will always repeat”. Of course, it reduces hassle, but also demands bigger responsibility from students.
After three years of practice in the specialty the graduate of university in Italy can come to doctoral studies. For this purpose it is necessary to pass an introductory test. Those who successfully cope with it get a grant on training in Italy. Doctoral candidates usually conduct research work at different universities in Italy and abroad. Protected receive the doctor’s degree.
Academic year begins in October-November and comes to an end in May-June. Within a year there are three sessions, and each student himself solves when and what examinations to him to take (except for some obligatory at each faculty) as students have the right for the individual plan of training. Very important difference from our education system is a lack of examination cards. Examinations happen written and oral. Literature, history, linguistics, philology usually are given orally in Italian. In Italy each examination demands huge independent preparation as at lectures give only a small portion of the fact that you have to know about a subject. Not everyone copes with examinations: the diploma is reached by only three persons from ten arrived.
Each professor has certain reception hours when he can personally listen and advise you what books will be most useful to you. At desire you can submit the application to have “curator” in one of your main objects. You will be able always to consult to it concerning the curriculum, examinations, programs, books and, of course, the thesis. One more opportunity – to come into the advice center existing at each faculty where will resolve your many doubts.
Requirements and an order of receipt in universities of Italy
The main principle of an education system in Italy “the academic freedom” is considered, i.e. anyone can enter the university if it meets all conditions of the admission. Foreign students at revenues to the first university cycle do not take entrance examinations therefore theoretically in Italy it is possible to enter the university, just having the certificate about secondary education (equivalent to the Italian diploma di maturita).
At all this many Italian universities have own system of software testing to language. Such tests usually consist of grammatical questions, the translation of the text and interview with the teacher therefore many entrants prefer to learn previously Italian in Italy.
But for receipt of a visa on training at the state university it is necessary to carry out legalization of the certificate / diploma in Consulate / Embassy of Italy.
Academies of fine arts and school of fashion and design of Italy, on the contrary, accept students on a competition which is rather big as training in them is very prestigious. As a rule, the student has to present the portfolio. In Italy our graduates can be admitted to schools of design right after obtaining the certificate about secondary education.