The education system in Turkey is made by two main divisions called by formal and informal education. Formal education is a preschool education, primary education, secondary education and the higher education. Informal education is the other education sponsored by the ministry and which is not a part of the system formal training.
Preschool education in Turkey
Preschool education is a preparatory step to all educational system and its integrated part. The majority of preschool institutions are private though some have communication with the public elementary schools. Establishments are generally concentrated in big cities, meeting requirements, arising with growth of number of the working mothers.
Primary education in Turkey
Five-year primary education is obligatory for the children who reached 6 years. The majority of elementary schools have the uniform. The school students who did not reach the established standard of knowledge in the end of the year are obliged to repeat a course of academic year, and at the existing system the child can remain at elementary school to the 14th summer age. But, of course, at successful training primary education terminates on achievement of the 11th summer age then the diploma about the termination of elementary school is issued.
Secondary education in Turkey
Secondary education consists of two steps: the first step proceeds three years, and the second – six years. The program of training at high schools practically does not differ from an education program in other European countries. But insignificant, difference the fact that teachers, but not pupils, pass from a class into a class during school day is considered main.
Graduates of high schools can continue training in higher educational institutions, having passed at the same time entrance examinations. The centralized examinations are controlled by the higher educational commission which defines the candidates who are going to the universities for different faculties, considering an average ball, an examination assessment and ability will be trained at this or that faculty.
Administration of education in Turkey
Management of an education system is under strict control of the Ministry of Education. The Ministry of Education bears responsibility not only for drawing up the training program, coordinating of work of the official, private and voluntary organizations, but also for design and construction of schools, development of training materials and other moments, responsible for education. The higher educational commission discusses and solves the training program, and terms programs are installed directly by the Ministry of Education.
In certain provinces the board of directors of the educational commission which is appointed by the minister is responsible for education. All work of directors is controlled by management of provinces.
The general education at all levels is supported by administrative bodies of the state which directly is responsible for financial expenses for education. Primary education gets support too from the state which generally covers expenses on construction and the maintenance of schools. About 10% of the general budget of the country are the share of education.
Academic year in Turkey
Academic year in Turkey begins in the second half of September or the beginning of October and proceeds till May or the beginning of June, depending on city or rural areas. School day proceeds since morning to the middle of day, but sometimes at some overloaded schools children study in two changes. Educational week proceeds five days. During academic year there is two-week winter vacation in February.
Universities and colleges also organize academic year in two semester – since the beginning of October till January and from February/March to June/July.
Training for foreign students in Turkey
Training of foreign students is organized in Turkey mainly at the level of university, and also in private higher education institutions. Teaching is conducted in English or Turkish. Entering higher education institutions for foreign students is carried out after leaving school (bachelor) and test passing on English or Turkish. Scholarship programs are, as a rule, offered only in state universities with training at Turkish.