Cultivation of champignon mushrooms

It is traditional when the speech comes about small business on cultivation of mushrooms, first of all remember oyster mushrooms and champignons. In common mentioning them, as if equalize mushrooms on technology and production. Of course, these mushrooms have common features. But much more distinctions. And first of all it concerns technology of cultivation. So, if almost everyone can grow up oyster mushrooms without special expenses, then with champignons a situation other. Their production demands certain expenses and much more technologically. So we will also begin with champignons. Champignons very “whimsical” mushrooms. For cultivation of mushrooms it is required to observe scrupulously difficult technology and hygienic requirements. Here what about it is told by Rasheed who had experience with champignons: “In the yard or in house conditions it will hardly turn out to grow up champignons – only to be indulged (for commercial purposes the effect will not be). It is difficult for me to recommend how to be engaged in cultivation of champignons – as I have only negative experience. That is I can share how “to burn through” in this business. I, in due time, trusted in skilled technologists and invested more than 100000 c.u. in this business, but within five years mushroom business did not begin to make the expected profit. So after failures I gave up this business. Though to theories it is written how to make, everything is successful. Mushroom business works for some (very much seldom saw such fans) is profitable”. Special fame was gained by the Dutch half-internal technology of cultivation of champignon mushrooms. However it is expedient to refer its development to “mediocre” business with very solid initial expenditure and a big payback period. If you risked to try on this field, follow the following recommendations. It is known that champignons as however, and oyster mushrooms, do not contain a chlorophyll to mean, are not capable to make to themselves food. They should be fed with special organic chemistry in special conditions i.e. as technologists speak, it is necessary to provide the habitat called by compost. It is the best of all to apply straw of a winter and spring-sown field to preparation of compost, humidity it is not higher than 20%. It surely has to be pure, without earth fragments, without weed and chaff, not rotten, golden color with a wax raid. If straw was bought for the future, then it is necessary to ensure its safety. Preparation of compost from straw belongs to the sphere of chemical laboratory researches in which it is required to reach a nitrogen ratio to carbon in a proportion 1:30, i.e. to add such quantity of a chicken dung that the analysis of test showed such ratio. Excessive nitrogen is transformed to ammonia, poisonous for mushrooms, – the shortcoming will lead to a crop failure. It is necessary to know a formula of reverse water since water contains nitrogen too. Remember that compost has to “breathe”, mean, it should not be sticky. For calculation of “a chemical formula” of compost it is possible to use the following table. Thus, calculation of a formula of compost is reduced to determination of real humidity of components. For example, if humidity of straw makes 15%, then the “dry” mass of ton of straw – 850 kilograms where there are only 2.55 kilograms of nitrogen. Knowing humidity of a chicken dung, it is possible to calculate how many it is necessary to add a dung to receive required percent. “I crush straw in the electromeat grinder, – Gennady from Kostroma tells about the “scientific researches” грибовод. – I weigh. Then the land in an electrooven of minutes forty. Again I weigh. Too most – with a dung. Then with the calculator I consider how many it is necessary a dung … when I prepare compost, all the time I watch temperature and acidity … if something happens, I add chalk … it is very unprofitable to buy compost on the party, it is better not to be engaged in cultivation of champignons, … at all by the way, the mycelium (mycelium) of good champignons costs three hundred rubles”. So, straw is previously crushed, then within two days humidified. It is known that straw very well absorbs water. On ton of straw about 2,5 tons of water will be required. Further it is mixed with manure and placed in the aerated bunkers for 12-14 days for maturing. At the same time it is important to control the temperature field of compost. On a compost surface it should not exceed 30 degrees Celsius, the second zone – from 30 to 50 degrees Celsius, the third zone of 50-70 degrees Celsius, in the bottom of no more than 75 degrees Celsius. After preparation of compost it is displayed on the shelves standing one above another and sown a mycelium of champignons in number of 5-6 kilograms on compost ton. Further apply the cover from peat got at a depth of 60 centimeters from a surface more deeply on a surface. Previously peat process the ferry at 60 degrees Celsius within four hours. Add chalk, ground limestone, shredded dolomite, marl or not extinguished lime to peat. Humidity of a cover has to be 70-80 percent at the required acidity 7.2-7.5 PH. Watering of compost needs to be made pollen. The room has to be well aired, very damp RH of 95%, with a temperature of 22-24 degrees Celsius and dark. In two weeks it is necessary to lower temperature to 16-19 degrees Celsius at concentration of carbon dioxide of 800-1800 ppm. It is clear, that first of all it is necessary to fulfill technology on small parties (by the way, with a mass of straw, less than 100 kilograms process of fermentation can not begin!), because initial materials and conditions at the seeming similarity significantly differ from each other. If you seriously decided to be engaged in cultivation of champignons, very important most will learn to prepare compost!!! Getting it on the party, you very much risk to buy low-quality material and to burn through. The technologist of one large Russian mushroom complex who wished to remain anonymous admitted: “In Russia there are no technologies guaranteeing absolute success. Only a trial and error method, patience and reflections, it is possible to overcome this business. Cultivation of champignons – from God, and profitability all exactly low, a maximum of percent thirty, but demand – is stable”.
Another matter – oyster mushrooms – really available trade. The room will practically be suitable for such mushroom business any, ideally the cellar.
“Under the house the big cellar where for oyster mushrooms an excellent microclimate, – Dmitry Ivanovich from Yeysk tells грибовод. – Everything was simpler than the soared turnip. I gathered a sunflower peel, the benefit at us it it is a lot of, filled in with hot water, waited when cools down. Then mixed (mycelium) of an oyster mushroom with crops and filled them big plastic bags. Placed them on racks, and in three days poked in them holes. In three weeks when small fungi appeared, for 12 hours turned on the light and the fan, and also dug out a manhole in the cellar. Already every day within a week. From a bag easily I cut off 2, and even 3 kilograms. I sell itself, with papers, first of all with the certificate, all problems were solved by the grandson”. “I am engaged in cultivation of an oyster mushroom too. The area for this business is necessary at least 15 square meters, – Anna from Tula shares a secret. – If it is honest, then the oyster mushroom business not really favorable – competitors is too much. I dream to learn to grow up champignons. There and cost another and the competition is less”.
Let’s note that the lover of mushrooms from Tula not one dreams of champignons. Many gribovoda of Russia which are growing up oyster mushrooms also licking lips, look towards champignons. And many of them agree in opinion that small business on cultivation of mushrooms can be considered successful and taken place only at development of shampinyonny technology.

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